Download Building Services Handbook 5th Ed PDF

TitleBuilding Services Handbook 5th Ed
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Total Pages649
Table of Contents
                            Building Services Handbook
Copyright Page
Contents
Preface to Fifth Edition
Preface to Fourth Edition
Preface to Third Edition
Preface to Second Edition
Preface to First Edition
Part One: Introduction
	The industry
	Construction team
	Legislative and support documents
	Health and Safety at Work etc. Act
	Building Act
	Water Industry Act
	British Standards
	European Standards
	International Standards
	Building Research Establishment
	Design and installation standards
Part Two: Cold Water and Supply Systems
	Rain cycle – sources of water supply
	Acidity and alkalinity in water
	Filtration of water
	Sterilisation and softening
	Storage and distribution of water
	Valves and taps
	Joints on water pipes
	Pipe jointing materials
	Water mains
	Direct system of cold water supply
	Indirect system of cold water supply
	Hard and soft water
	Water conditioning
	Backflow protection
	Secondary backflow protection
	Cold water storage cisterns
	Cold water storage calculations
	Boosted cold water systems
	Delayed action float valve
	Pump laws
	Pipe sizing by formula
	Pipe sizes and resistances
	Hydraulics and fluid flow
Part Three: Hot Water Supply Systems
	Direct system of hot water supply
	Indirect system of hot water supply
	Unvented hot water storage system
	Expansion and temperature relief valves
	Hot water storage cylinders
	Primatic hot water storage cylinder
	Medium and high rise building supply systems
	Types of boiler
	Secondary circulation
	Duplication of plant
	Electric and gas water heaters
	Solar heating of water
	Hot water storage capacity
	Boiler rating
	Pipe sizing
	Circulation pump rating
	Legionnaires' disease in hot water systems
	SEDBUK
	Galvanic or electrolytic action
	Water treatment
Part Four: Heating Systems
	Heat emitters
	Low temperature, hot water heating systems
	Underfloor and panel heating
	Expansion facilities in heating systems
	Expansion vessels
	Solar space heating
	High temperature, pressurised hot water systems
	Steam heating systems
	District heating
	Combined heat and power
	Expansion of pipework
	Thermostatic control of heating systems
	Timed control of heating systems
	Zoned controls
	Energy management systems
	Warm air heating system
	Heating design
	'U' values
Part Five: Fuel Characteristics and Storage
	Fuels – factors affecting choice
	Solid fuel – properties and storage
	Domestic solid fuel boilers
	Solid fuel – flues
	Oil – properties
	Oil – storage and supply
	Oil-fired burners
	Oil – flues
	Natural gas – properties
	Liquid petroleum gas – properties and storage
	Electric boiler
	Electricity – electrode boiler
Part Six: Ventilation Systems
	Ventilation requirements
	Guide to ventilation rates
	Domestic accommodation
	Mechanical ventilation
	Types of fan
	Fan laws
	Sound attenuation in ductwork
	Air filters
	Low velocity air flow in ducts
	Air diffusion
	Ventilation design
	Resistances to air flow
Part Seven: Air Conditioning
	Air conditioning – principles and applications
	Central plant system
	Air processing unit
	Humidifiers
	Variable air volume
	Induction (air/water) system
	Fan-coil (air/water) unit and induction diffuser
	Dual duct system
	Cooling systems
	Refrigerant and system characteristics
	Packed air conditioning systems
	Psychrometrics – processes and applications
	Heat pumps
	Heat recovery devices
	Health considerations and building related illnesses
Part Eight: Drainage Systems, Sewage Treatment and Refuse Disposal
	Combined and separate systems
	Partially separate system
	Rodding point system
	Sewer connection
	Drainage ventilation
	Drain laying
	Means of access
	Bedding of drains
	Drains under or near buildings
	Joints used on drain pipes
	Anti-flood devices
	Garage drainage
	Drainage pumping
	Subsoil drainage
	Tests on drains
	Soakaways
	Cesspools and septic tanks
	Drainage fields and mounds
	Rainwater management
	Drainage design
	Refuse chute
Part Nine: Sanitary Fitments and Appliances: Discharge and Waste Systems
	Flushing cisterns, troughs and valves
	Water closets
	Bidets
	Showers
	Baths
	Sinks
	Wash basins and troughs
	Thermostatic temperature control
	Urinals
	Hospital sanitary appliances
	Sanitary conveniences
	Facilities for the disabled
	Traps and waste valve
	Single stack system and variations
	One- and two-pipe systems
	Pumped waste system
	Wash basins – waste arrangements
	Waste pipes from washing machines and dishwashers
	Air test
	Sanitation – data
	Offsets
	Ground floor appliances – high rise buildings
	Fire stops and seals
	Flow rates and discharge units
	Sanitation design – discharge stack sizing
Part Ten: Gas Installation, Components and Controls
	Natural gas – combustion
	Mains gas supply and installation
	Gas service pipe intake
	Meters
	Gas controls and safety features
	Gas ignition devices and burners
	Purging and testing
	Gas appliances
	Balanced flue appliances
	Open flue appliances
	Flue blocks
	Flue terminals
	Flue lining
	Shared flues
	Fan assisted gas flues
	Ventilation requirements
	Flue gas analysis
	Gas laws
	Gas consumption
	Gas pipe sizing
Part Eleven: Electrical Supply and Installations
	Three-phase generation and supply
	Electricity distribution
	Intake to a building
	Earthing systems and bonding
	Consumer unit
	Power and lighting circuits
	Overload protection
	Electric wiring
	Testing completed installation
	Cable rating
	Diversity
	Industrial installations
	Electric space heating
	Space heating controls
	Construction site electricity
	Light sources, lamps and luminaires
	Lighting controls
	Extra-low-voltage lighting
	Lighting design
	Daylighting
	Telecommunications installation
Part Twelve: Mechanical Conveyors – Lifts, Escalators and Travelators
	Planning lift installations
	Electric lifts
	Roping systems
	Controls
	Lift doors
	Machine room and equipment
	Safety features
	Installation details
	Dimensions
	Paternoster lifts
	Oil-hydraulic lifts
	Lifting arrangements and installation
	Pumping unit
	Estimating the number of lifts required
	Firefighting lifts
	Builders' and electricians' work
	Escalators
	Travelators
	Stair lifts
Part Thirteen: Fire Prevention and Control Services
	Sprinklers
	Drenchers
	Hose reels
	Hydrants
	Foam installations
	Gas extinguishers
	Fire alarms
	Smoke, fire and heat detectors
	Electrical alarm circuits
	Fire dampers in ductwork
	Pressurisation of escape routes
	Smoke extraction, ventilation and control
	Portable fire extinguishers
	Carbon monoxide detectors
Part Fourteen: Security Installations
	Intruder alarms
	Micro-switch and magnetic reed
	Radio sensor, pressure mat and taut wiring
	Acoustic, vibration and inertia detectors
	Ultrasonic and microwave detectors
	Active infra-red detector
	Passive infra-red detector
	Lightning protection systems
Part Fifteen: Accommodation for Building Services
	Ducts for engineering services
	Floor and skirting ducts
	Medium and large vertical ducts
	Medium and large horizontal ducts
	Subways or walkways
	Penetration of fire structure by pipes
	Raised access floors
	Suspended and false ceilings
Part Sixteen: Alternative and Renewable Energy
	Alternative energy
	Wind power
	Fuel cells
	Water power
	Geothermal power
	Solar power
	Photovoltaic systems
	Biomass or biofuel
Part Seventeen: Appendices
	Appendix 1 – Glossary of common abbreviations
	Appendix 2 – Abbreviations for pipework
	Appendix 3 – Abbreviations for pipework components
	Appendix 4 – Abbreviations used for drainage systems
	Appendix 5 – Abbreviations used for sanitation systems
	Appendix 6 – Graphical symbols for pipework
	Appendix 7 – Identification of pipework
	Appendix 8 – Graphical symbols for electrical installation work
	Appendix 9 – Metric units
	Appendix 10 – Water pressure and head – Comparison of units
	Appendix 11 – Conversion of common imperial units to metric
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	Q
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	Y
	Z
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

BUILDING SERVICES
HANDBOOK

Page 324

305

Velocity of flow † 0„75 m/s † is the accepted minimum to achieve self-

cleansing. It is recognised that an upper limit is required to prevent

separation of liquids from solids. A reasonable limit is 1„8 m/s for both

surface and foul water drainage, although figures up to 3 m/s can be

used especially if grit is present. The selected flow rate will have a

direct effect on drain gradient, therefore to moderate excavation costs

a figure nearer the lower limit is preferred. Also, if there is a natural

land slope and excavation is a constant depth, this will determine the

gradient and velocity of flow.

Hydraulic mean depth (HMD) † otherwise known as hydraulic radius

represents the proportion or depth of flow in a drain. It will have an

effect on velocity and can be calculated by dividing the area of water

flowing in a drain by the contact or wetted perimeter. Thus for half

full bore:



This table summarises HMD for proportional flows:

Depth of flow HMD

0„25 Pipe dia. (m) ÷ 6„67

0„33 Pipe dia. (m) ÷ 5„26

0„50 Pipe dia. (m) ÷ 4„00

0„66 Pipe dia. (m) ÷ 3„45

0„75 Pipe dia. (m) ÷ 3„33

Full Pipe dia. (m) ÷ 4„00

E.g. a 225 mm (0„225 m) drain flowing half bore:


HMD � � �0 225 4 0 05625. .



Drainage Design – Velocities and Hydraulic Mean Depth

Page 325

306

Drains are usually designed with a maximum flow condition of three

quarters full bore, i.e. depth of flow or proportional depth 0„75. It is

essential to maintain some air space within a drain to prevent pressure

variations. Half full bore is a more conservative design, allowing ample

space for future connections and extensions to the system.

The relationship between drain capacity or proportional depth of flow,

velocity of flow (m/s) and discharge (m 3 /s) is represented in graphical

format:



Taking the example on page 310 the drain is designed to flow at half

full bore with a flow velocity of 0„8 m/s and discharge of 0„052 m 3 /s. If

at some later date, additional buildings are connected to the drainage

system to produce an anticipated flow of up to 0„75 proportional

depth, the graph indicates revised relative velocity and discharge rates

of 114% or 0„912 m/s and 92% or 0„048 m 3 /s, respectively.

Drainage Design – Depth of Flow

Page 648

Index

629

Suction tank for sprinklers , 530

Suction tank for wet risers , 535 ,

537

Summer valve , 75

Sump pump , 285

Supatap , 25

Superheated steam , 130

Supervisory control of lifts , 500

Supply pipe , 29

Surface water drainage , 302 † 9

Suspended ceiling , 584

Sustainable Urban Drainage

Systems (SUDS) , 299

Swales , 299

Swinging type fire damper , 552

Tail end sprinkler system , 525

Tapping of water main , 29

Taps , 25

Taut wiring , 564 , 566

Telecommunications , 492

Telephone socket , 452 , 492

Temperature , 94 , 610 , 615

Temperature control valve , 133

Temperature relief valve , 67 † 70

Tempering valve , 343

Temporary hardness , 34 , 40

Terminal positions of gas flues ,

403 † 4 , 407 , 409 † 12

Terminal position of discharge

stack, 3360 , 363

Testing

of drains , 289

of sanitary pipework , 368

Thermal relief safety valve , 70 , 87

Thermal storage heating , 465 † 6

Thermal transmittance , 156

Thermal wheel , 260

Thermocouple , 392 † 4

Thermo-electric safety device , 394

Thermostatic control

of heating , 141 † 54

of hot water , 116 , 143 , 145 † 6 , 148

Thermostatic mixing valve , 120 ,

141 , 339 † 42

Thermostatic radiator valve , 110 ,

116 , 141 † 6

Thermostatic steam trap , 132

Thermostatic valves , 116 , 141 † 6

Thermostats for gas , 391 † 4

Thomas Box formula , 54 , 58

Three-phase generator , 432

Three-phase supply , 432 † 5

Time controller , 83 , 142 † 3 , 469 , 482

TN-S and TN-C-S systems , 437

Towel rail , 75 , 116

Traction sheave , 496 † 7 , 502

Transformer , 149 , 432 † 6 , 470 † 1 ,

483 † 4

Trace element , 149

Traps

sanitation , 355 † 7

steam , 132

Travelator , 519

Trickle ventilator , 200 † 2 , 205

Trunk water mains , 22

TT system , 436

Tundish , 87 , 91 , 117 , 124 , 146 , 195 ,

405

Two-pipe heating , 114 † 15

drop heating system , 115

high level return heating system ,

115

parallel heating system , 114

reverse return heating system , 114

upfeed heating system , 115

Two-pipe sanitation , 364

Two-way switching , 448 † 50

U-duct , 414

̀ U ' values , 156 , 158

Ultrasonic detector , 564 , 568

Ultra-violet heat detector , 548

Under floor heating , 2 , 120 † 3 , 465

Underground coal gasification , 598

Underground heating mains , 135 † 7 ,

592

Unfilled soakaway , 290

Unvented hot water storage

system , 67 † 9

Page 649

Index

630

Unventilated stack , 270

Urinals , 345 † 6 , 364

Valves , 23 † 5 , 50 , 70 † 1 , 110 , 116 ,

130 , 147

Vapour compression cycle , 241 ,

246

Vapour expansion thermostat , 391

Vapourising oil burner , 186 † 7

Variable air volume a/c , 236

Velocity of water in drains , 304 † 6

Velocity of water in pipes , 58 † 60 ,

97 † 8 , 162 , 164

Ventilated one-pipe sanitation ,

363

Ventilated light fitting , 236 , 477

Ventilated stack , 362

Ventilation, Building Regulations ,

198 , 200 † 2

Ventilation

of buildings , 198 † 209

design , 218 † 30

of drains , 268 † 9

duct materials , 211

duct profile , 210

for gas appliances , 418 † 20

for oil appliances , 188 † 9

heat losses , 158

rates , 198 † 9

requirements , 198 † 202

system characteristics , 224

Venturi , 89

Venturimeter , 60

Verifiable backflow preventer , 43

Vibration detector , 564 , 567

Viscous air filter , 216

Voltage drop , 460

Walkway , 581

Wall flame burner , 187

Warm air heating , 155 , 207 , 467

Warning pipe , 31 † 2 , 41 , 44 , 124

Wash basins , 337 , 339 † 41 , 359 † 66

Wash-down W.C. pan , 325 , 359 † 65

Washer for air , 234 † 5

Washing machine waste , 367 , 370

Washing trough , 338

Waste disposal unit , 318

Waste pipes , 356 , 359 † 67

Waste valve , 358

Water

conditioners , 36 † 9

disinfection , 107

hardness , 33 † 6

Industry Act , 4 , 11

mains , 28 † 9

meter , 30

pressure and head , 54 , 57 , 613

pressure test , 169

Regulations Advisory Scheme , 11

seal loss in traps , 356 † 7

softener , 21 , 35 † 6

sources , 18

supply for sprinklers , 530

test on drains , 289

treatment , 40 , 106 † 8

tube boiler , 78

power , 586 , 590

Wavering out of trap seals , 356

WC pan , 325 † 6

Wet bulb temperature , 232 , 248 † 55

Wet pipe sprinkler system , 525 ,

527 † 8

Wet riser , 537

Wet steam , 130

Whirling hygrometer , 248

Whole building ventilation , 200 † 2

Wind power , 586 , 589

Wind pressure diagrams , 203 , 410

Wireless heating controls , 150

Wiring systems for central

heating , 151

Work at Height Regulations , 5 , 8

Workplace (Health, Safety and

Welfare) Regulations , 5 , 6 , 245 ,

261 , 350

Yard gully , 264 † 5

Zone controls , 143 † 4 , 148

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