Download (Contemporary Food Engineering) Cerqueira, Miquel Angelo Et Al.-edible Food Packaging_ Materials and Processing Technologies-CRC Press (2015) PDF

Title(Contemporary Food Engineering) Cerqueira, Miquel Angelo Et Al.-edible Food Packaging_ Materials and Processing Technologies-CRC Press (2015)
TagsTechnology Foods Science And Technology
File Size16.1 MB
Total Pages455
Table of Contents
                            Front Cover
Contents
Series Preface
Preface
Acknowledgments
Series Editor
Editors
Contributors
1. Edible Packaging Today
2. Edible Film and Packaging Using Gum Polysaccharides
3. Protein-Based Films and Coatings
4. Edible Coatings and Films from Lipids, Waxes, and Resins
5. Production and Processing of Edible Packaging: Stability and Applications
6. Mass Transfer Measurement and Modeling for Designing Protective Edible Films
7. Edible Packaging: A Vehicle for Functional Compounds
8. Antimicrobial Edible Packaging
9. Nanotechnology in Edible Packaging
10. Nanostructured Multilayers for Food Packaging by Electrohydrodynamic Processing
11. How to Evaluate the Barrier Properties for Edible Packaging of Respiring Products
12. Edible Packaging for Fruits and Vegetables
13. Edible Packaging for Dairy Products
14. Edible Coatings and Films for Meat, Poultry, and Fish
Back Cover
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

K22983

ISBN-13: 978-1-4822-3416-9

9 781482 234169

90000

Mater i a l s and Process i ng Techno l og i es
Edible Food Packaging

Food & Culinary Science

The edible food packaging industry has experienced remarkable
growth in recent years and will continue to impact the food market for
quite some time going into the future. Edible Food Packaging: Materi-
als and Processing Technologies provides a broad and comprehensive
review on recent aspects related to edible packaging, from processing
to potential applications, and covers the use of nanotechnology
in edible packaging.

The book’s 14 chapters promote a comprehensive review on such
subjects as materials used, their structure–function relationship, and new
processing technologies for application and production of edible
coatings and �lms. Speci�c topics include edible �lm and packaging
using gum polysaccharides, protein-based �lms and coatings, and
edible coatings and �lms from lipids, waxes, and resins. The book also
reviews stability and application concerns, mass transfer measurement
and modeling for designing protective edible �lms, and edible packaging
as a vehicle for functional compounds.

The authors explore antimicrobial edible packaging, nanotechnology in
edible packaging, and nanostructured multilayers for food packaging by
electrohydrodynamic processing. Additionally, they show how to evalu-
ate the needs for edible packaging of respiring products and provide an
overview of edible packaging for fruits, vegetables, and dairy products.
Last, they examine edible coatings and �lms for meat, poultry, and �sh.

Features:

• Covers edible �lms derived from protein, lipids, and saccharides
• Discusses nanotechnology and nanolaminate coatings in edible

packaging
• Explains how to evaluate the properties needed for edible packaging

of both respiring and non-respiring products
• Reviews the regulatory aspects of edible packaging

Edible Food
Packaging
Mater i a l s and Process i ng Techno l og i es

Miguel Ângelo Parente Ribeiro Cerqueira
Ricardo Nuno Correia Pereira
Óscar Leandro da Silva Ramos
José António Couto Teixeira
António Augusto Vicente

Edited by
E

d
ib

le F
o
o
d
P

ackagin
g

Cerqueira • Pereira
Ramos • Teixeira • Vicente

Page 2

Edible Food
Packaging
Mater i a l s and Process i ng Techno l og i es

Page 227

202 Edible Food Packaging

6.4.1 Case a: simPliFied aPProaCh Considering only
Permeation in the Coating/Film

This approach is the simplest one involving no more than three simple calculations
based on Fick’s first law for dimensioning an edible film, that is, calculating the

Food

En
vi

ro
nm

en
t

Film

–L2 –L1
x

with D1, D2 the diffusion coefficients
C1, C2 the solute contents
k the partition coefficient

∂x2
∂2C1= D1∂t

∂C1 , –L1 < x < 0

C1 (x,0) = C0 for t = 0 and –L1 < x < 0

= 0 for x = –L1∂x
∂C1

In the film:

D1 = D2∂t ∂x
∂C1 ∂C2

for x = 0

C2 = kC1 for x = 0

At the film/food interface:

∂2x
∂2C2= D2∂t

∂C2 , 0 < x < L2

C2 (x,0) = 0 for t = 0 and 0 < x < L2
for x = L2

In the food:

3. Case C : Unsteady-state transfer from the film to food, Fick’s second law
(b)

Application: Diffusion of the active compound from an
edible coating

4. Case D : Coupling diffusion and reaction

Application: Diffusion of active compound from edible coating coupled
with the production rate of that compound

Reactiontion

+ R
∂x2

∂2CA= D
∂t

∂CA

Reaction → Release activated by another parameter
→ Chemical reaction
→ Respiration

A—Diffusing compound (ex: active compound, O2, CO2)

R—Consumption or production rate of A

k—Reaction rate of release= −k ⋅ CA∂t
∂CA

If production of A influences an another reaction, for example, microbial growth, then further consumptions
must be also taken into account:

= 0
dt

dNt for t ≤ lag

)
Nmax

Nt
dt

dNt = μmax ⋅ Nt ⋅(1 − for t > lag

Nt—the value of the microorganism
population at time t and position x with
in the food sample (CFU g–1)
Nmax—the maximal population at the end
of the growth curve (stationary phase)
(CFU g–1)
µmax—the maximal growth rate (s

–1)
lag—the lag time for the microorganism
concerned (s)

(Rosso et al., 1995)

Reaction

Microb
ial

growth

CO2
O2

CO2
O2

FIGURE 6.5 (Continued) Classification of the different mathematical modeling approaches
used for prediction mass transfer in the coated/food system and for designing edible films and
coatings� (b) Cases based on the use of Fick’s second law�

Page 228

203Mass Transfer Measurement and Modeling

adequate permeability of the coating for a targeted application� An example of such
dimensioning is given in Box 6�1� Such simplified calculations could be also used
to predict the shelf life of the coated food with a given coating material of known
permeability�

BOX 6.1 EXAMPLE OF COATING
DIMENSIONING CALCULATION

An edible film is used to preserve a biscuit that contains 7% of water (g H2O/
dry basis)� Inside the package, the biscuit generates a relative humidity of 53%�
The storage conditions are 25°C and 93% RH� The packed amount of a biscuit
is 125 g for a total area of 420 cm2� The targeted thickness for the edible film
is l = 50 μm)� What is the acceptable water vapor permeability of the edible
film to achieve a shelf life of 7 days, knowing that the maximal water content
of the biscuit is 18% dry basis? Water vapor partial pressure at 25°C is 3167 Pa�

Calculation:

1� Maximal water intake (x) authorized for the biscuit



7
100 7

125
18

100 18
125

12 81

+






× + =
+







× +

=

x x

x

( )

� g of H O2

2� Maximal flow rate through the coating considering shelf life of 7 days
and the calculated maximal water uptake



J
x

t

J

J J

=

=
× ×

= × → = × = ×− − −

12 81
7 24 3600

2 12 10
2 12
18

10 1 18 105 5 6






�g/s mmol/s

3� Calculation of the maximal water vapor permeability for the edible
film



J
Pe A p

l

P

P

=
⋅ ⋅

=
× × ×

× × − ×
=

− −





1 18 10 50 10
420 10 0 93 0 53 3167

3

6 6

4


( � � )

�888 10 11× ⋅ ⋅− mol/m s Pa

Page 454

429Edible Coatings and Films for Meat, Poultry, and Fish

Siripatrawan, U�, and Harte, B� R� 2010� Physical properties and antioxidant activity of an
active film from chitosan incorporated with green tea extract� Food Hydrocolloids,
24, 770–775�

Siripatrawan, U�, and Noipha, S� 2012� Active film from chitosan incorporating green tea
extract for shelf life extension of pork sausages� Food Hydrocolloids, 27(1), 102–108�

Solomakos, N�, Govaris, A�, Koidis, P�, and Botsoglou, N� 2008� The antimicrobial effect of
thyme essential oil, nisin ant their combination against Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in
minced beef during refrigerated storage� Meat Science, 80, 159–166�

Soomro, A� H�, Masud, T�, and Anwarr, K� 2002� Role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in food
preservation and human health—A review� Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 1, 20–24�

Souza, B� W� S�, Cerqueira, M� A�, Ruiz, H� A�, Martins, J� T�, Casariego, A�, Teixeira, J� A�,
and Vicente, A� A� 2010� Effect of chitosan-based coatings on the shelf life of salmon
(Salmo salar)� Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 11456–11462�

Stuchell, Y� M�, and Krochta, J� M� 1995� Edible coatings on frozen ding salmon: Effect of
whey protein isolate and acetylated monoglycerides on moisture loss and lipid oxida-
tion� Journal of Food Science, 60, 28–31�

Suppakul, P�, Miltz, J�, Sonneveld, K�, and Bigger, S� W� 2006� Characterization of antimicro-
bial films containing basil extracts� Packaging Technology and Science, 19, 259–268�

Turan, H�, Kaya, Y�, and Erkoyuncu, I� 2003� Effects of glazing, packaging and phosphate
treatments on drip loss in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W�, 1792) during frozen
storage� Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 3, 105–109�

Vanhaeckea, L�, Verbeke, W�, and Brabander, H� F� 2010� Glazing of frozen fish: Analytical
and economic challenges� Analytica Chimica Acta, 672, 40–44�

Weist, J� L�, and Karel, M� 1992� Development of a fluorescence sensor to monitor lipid oxida-
tion� 1� Fluorescence-spectra of chitosan powder and polyamide powder after exposure
to volatile lipid oxidation products� Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 40(7),
1158–1162�

Ye, M�, Neetoo, H�, and Chen, H� 2008� Effectiveness of chitosan-coated plastic films incor-
porating antimicrobial in inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cold-smoked salmon�
International Journal of Food Microbiology, 127, 235–240�

Zinoviadou, K� G�, Koutsoumanis, K� P�, and Biliaderis, C� G� 2009� Physico-chemical prop-
erties of whey protein isolate films containing oregano oil and their antimicrobial
action against spoilage flora of fresh beef� Meat Science, 82, 338–345�

Page 455

K22983

ISBN-13: 978-1-4822-3416-9

9 781482 234169

90000

Mater i a l s and Process i ng Techno l og i es
Edible Food Packaging

Food & Culinary Science

The edible food packaging industry has experienced remarkable
growth in recent years and will continue to impact the food market for
quite some time going into the future. Edible Food Packaging: Materi-
als and Processing Technologies provides a broad and comprehensive
review on recent aspects related to edible packaging, from processing
to potential applications, and covers the use of nanotechnology
in edible packaging.

The book’s 14 chapters promote a comprehensive review on such
subjects as materials used, their structure–function relationship, and new
processing technologies for application and production of edible
coatings and �lms. Speci�c topics include edible �lm and packaging
using gum polysaccharides, protein-based �lms and coatings, and
edible coatings and �lms from lipids, waxes, and resins. The book also
reviews stability and application concerns, mass transfer measurement
and modeling for designing protective edible �lms, and edible packaging
as a vehicle for functional compounds.

The authors explore antimicrobial edible packaging, nanotechnology in
edible packaging, and nanostructured multilayers for food packaging by
electrohydrodynamic processing. Additionally, they show how to evalu-
ate the needs for edible packaging of respiring products and provide an
overview of edible packaging for fruits, vegetables, and dairy products.
Last, they examine edible coatings and �lms for meat, poultry, and �sh.

Features:

• Covers edible �lms derived from protein, lipids, and saccharides
• Discusses nanotechnology and nanolaminate coatings in edible

packaging
• Explains how to evaluate the properties needed for edible packaging

of both respiring and non-respiring products
• Reviews the regulatory aspects of edible packaging

Edible Food
Packaging
Mater i a l s and Process i ng Techno l og i es

Miguel Ângelo Parente Ribeiro Cerqueira
Ricardo Nuno Correia Pereira
Óscar Leandro da Silva Ramos
José António Couto Teixeira
António Augusto Vicente

Edited by

E
d
ib

le F
o
o
d
P

ackagin
g

Cerqueira • Pereira
Ramos • Teixeira • Vicente

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