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Designation: E1030/E1030M − 15

Standard Practice for
Radiographic Examination of Metallic Castings1

This standard is issued under the fixed designation E1030/E1030M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year
of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope

1.1 This practice2 provides a uniform procedure for radio-
graphic examination of metallic castings using radiographic
film as the recording medium.

1.2 This standard addresses the achievement of, or protocols
for achieving, common or practical levels of radiographic
coverage for castings, to detect primarily volumetric disconti-
nuities to sensitivity levels measured by nominated image
quality indicators. All departures, including alternate means or
methods to increase coverage, or address challenges of detect-
ing non-volumetric planar-type discontinuities, shall be agreed
upon between the purchaser and supplier and shall consider
Appendix X1 and Appendix X2.

1.3 The radiographic techniques stated herein provide ad-
equate assurance for defect detectability; however, it is recog-
nized that, for special applications, specific techniques using
more or less stringent requirements may be required than those
specified. In these cases, the use of alternate radiographic
techniques shall be as agreed upon between purchaser and
supplier (also see Section 5).

1.4 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units
are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in
each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each
system shall be used independently of the other. Combining
values from the two systems may result in non-conformance
with the standard.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.

2. Referenced Documents

2.1 ASTM Standards:3

E94 Guide for Radiographic Examination
E155 Reference Radiographs for Inspection of Aluminum

and Magnesium Castings
E186 Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (2 to 41⁄2 in.

(50.8 to 114 mm)) Steel Castings
E192 Reference Radiographs of Investment Steel Castings

for Aerospace Applications
E272 Reference Radiographs for High-Strength Copper-

Base and Nickel-Copper Alloy Castings
E280 Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (41⁄2 to 12

in. (114 to 305 mm)) Steel Castings
E310 Reference Radiographs for Tin Bronze Castings
E446 Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings Up to 2 in.

(50.8 mm) in Thickness
E505 Reference Radiographs for Inspection of Aluminum

and Magnesium Die Castings
E543 Specification for Agencies Performing Nondestructive

E689 Reference Radiographs for Ductile Iron Castings
E747 Practice for Design, Manufacture and Material Group-

ing Classification of Wire Image Quality Indicators (IQI)
Used for Radiology

E802 Reference Radiographs for Gray Iron Castings Up to
41⁄2 in. (114 mm) in Thickness

E999 Guide for Controlling the Quality of Industrial Radio-
graphic Film Processing

E1025 Practice for Design, Manufacture, and Material
Grouping Classification of Hole-Type Image Quality In-
dicators (IQI) Used for Radiology

E1079 Practice for Calibration of Transmission Densitom-

E1254 Guide for Storage of Radiographs and Unexposed
Industrial Radiographic Films

E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
1 This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E07 on Nonde-

structive Testing and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.01 on
Radiology (X and Gamma) Method.

Current edition approved Dec. 1, 2015. Published January 2016. Originally
approved in 1984. Last previous edition approved in 2011 as E1030 - 05(2011).
DOI: 10.1520/E1030_E1030M-15.

2 For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Test
Method SE-1030 in Section II of that Code.

3 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at [email protected] For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
the ASTM website.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States


Page 2


E1320 Reference Radiographs for Titanium Castings
E1742 Practice for Radiographic Examination
E1815 Test Method for Classification of Film Systems for

Industrial Radiography
2.2 ASNT/ANSI Standards:
SNT-TC-1A Recommended Practice for Personnel Qualifi-

cation and Certification in Nondestructive Testing4

CP-189 Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive
Testing Personnel4

2.3 Other Standards:5

NAS 410 National Aerospace Standard Certification and
Qualification of Nondestructive Test Personnel

2.4 ISO Standards:6

ISO 5579 Non-Destructive Testing—Radiographic Testing
of Metallic Materials Using Film and X- or Gamma-
rays—Basic Rules

ISO 9712 Non-Destructive Testing—Qualification and Cer-
tification of NDT Personnel

3. Terminology

3.1 Definitions—For definitions of terms used in this
practice, see Terminology E1316.

4. Significance and Use

4.1 The requirements expressed in this practice are intended
to control the quality of the radiographic images, to produce
satisfactory and consistent results, and are not intended for
controlling the acceptability or quality of materials or products.

5. Basis of Application

5.1 The following items shall be agreed upon by the
purchaser and supplier:

5.1.1 Nondestructive Testing Agency Evaluation—If speci-
fied in the contractual agreement, nondestructive testing (NDT)
agencies shall be qualified and evaluated in accordance with
Practice E543. The applicable version of Practice E543 shall be
specified in the contractual agreement.

5.1.2 Personnel Qualification—Personnel performing ex-
aminations to this standard shall be qualified in accordance
with a nationally or internationally recognized NDT personnel
qualification practice or standard such as ANSI/ASNT CP-189,
SNT-TC-1A, NAS 410, ISO 9712, or a similar document and
certified by the employer or certifying agency, as applicable.
The practice or standard used and its applicable revision shall
be identified in the contractual agreement between the using

5.1.3 Apparatus—General requirements (see 6.1 through
6.9) shall be specified.

5.1.4 Requirements—General requirements (see 8.1, 8.2,
8.5, and 8.7.4) shall be specified.

5.1.5 Procedure Requirements (see 9.1, 9.1.1, 9.3, 9.7.4, and
9.7.7) shall be specified.

5.1.6 Records—Record retention (see 12.1) shall be speci-

6. Apparatus

6.1 Radiation Sources:
6.1.1 X Radiation Sources—Selection of appropriate X-ray

voltage and current levels is dependent upon variables regard-
ing the specimen being examined (material type and thickness)
and economically permissible exposure time. The suitability of
these X-ray parameters shall be demonstrated by attainment of
required penetrameter (IQI) sensitivity and compliance with all
other requirements stipulated herein. Guide E94 contains
provisions concerning exposure calculations and charts for the
use of X-ray sources.

6.1.2 Gamma Radiation Sources—Isotope sources, when
used, shall be capable of demonstrating the required radio-
graphic sensitivity.

6.2 Film Holders and Cassettes—Film holders and cassettes
shall be light-tight and shall be handled properly to reduce the
likelihood that they may be damaged. They may be flexible
vinyl, plastic, or any durable material; or, they may be made
from metallic materials. In the event that light leaks into the
film holder and produces images on the film extending into the
area of interest, the film shall be rejected. If the film holder
exhibits light leaks, it shall be repaired before reuse or
discarded. Film holders and cassettes should be routinely
examined to minimize the likelihood of light leaks.

6.3 Intensifying Screens:
6.3.1 Lead-Foil Screens: Intensifying screens of the lead-foil type are gener-

ally used for all production radiography. Lead-foil screens shall
be of the same approximate area dimensions as the film being
used and they shall be in direct contact with the film during
exposure. Recommended screen thicknesses are listed in Table
1 for the applicable voltage range being used. Sheet lead, with or without backing, used for screens
should be visually examined for dust, dirt, oxidation, cracking
or creasing, foreign material or other condition that could
render undesirable nonrelevant images on the film.

6.3.2 Fluorescent, Fluorometallic, or Other Metallic
Screens: Fluorescent, fluorometallic, or other metallic screens
may be used. However, they must be capable of demonstrating
the required penetrameter (IQI) sensitivity. Fluorescent or
fluorometallic screens may cause limitations in image quality
(see Guide E94, Appendix X1.) Screen Care—All screens should be handled care-
fully to avoid dents, scratches, grease, or dirt on active
surfaces. Screens that render false indications on radiographs
shall be discarded or reworked to eliminate the artifact.

6.3.3 Other Screens—International Standard ISO 5579 con-
tains similar provisions for intensifying screens as this practice.
International users of these type screens who prefer the use of

4 Available from the American Society for Nondestructive Testing, (ASNT),
1711 Arlingate Plaza, P.O. Box 28518, Columbus, OH 43228.

5 Available from Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc., 1000 Wilson
Blvd Suite 1700, Arlington, VA 22209-3928.

6 Available from International Organization for Standardization (ISO), ISO
Central Secretariat, BIBC II, Chemin de Blandonnet 8, CP 401, 1214 Vernier,
Geneva, Switzerland,

E1030/E1030M − 15


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9.7.2 When the film density varies more than –15 %
to +30 %, two penetrameters (IQI) shall be used as follows: if
one penetrameter (IQI) shows acceptable sensitivity represent-
ing the most dense portion of the exposure, and the second
penetrameter (IQI) shows acceptable sensitivity representing
the least dense portion of the exposure, then these two
penetrameters (IQI) shall qualify the exposure location within
these densities, provided the density requirements stipulated in
8.6 are met.

9.7.3 For cylindrical or flat castings where more than one
film holder is used for an exposure, at least one penetrameter
(IQI) image shall appear on each radiograph. For cylindrical
shapes, where a panoramic type source of radiation is placed in
the center of the cylinder and a complete or partial circumfer-
ence is radiographed using at least four overlapped film
holders, at least three penetrameters (IQI) shall be used. On
partial circumference exposures, a penetrameter (IQI) shall be
placed at each end of the length of the image to be evaluated
on the radiograph with the intermediate penetrameters (IQI)
placed at equal divisions of the length covered. For full
circumferential coverage, three penetrameters (IQI) spaced
120° apart shall be used, even when using a single length of
roll film.

9.7.4 When an array of individual castings in a circle is
radiographed, the requirements of 9.7.1 or 9.7.2, or both, shall
prevail for each casting.

9.7.5 If the required penetrameter (IQI) sensitivity does not
show on any one film in a multiple film technique (see 9.11),
but does show in composite (superimposed) film viewing,
interpretation shall be permitted only by composite film
viewing for the respective area.

9.7.6 When it is not practicable to place the penetrameter(s)
(IQI) on the casting, a shim or separate block conforming to the
requirements of 6.7 may be used. The penetrameter (IQI) shall be no closer to the film
than the source side of that part of the casting being radio-
graphed in the current view. The radiographic density measured adjacent to the
penetrameter (IQI) through the body of the shim or separate
block shall not exceed the density measured in the area of
interest by more than 15 %. The density may be lighter than the
area of interest density, provided acceptable quality level is
obtained and the density requirements of 8.6 are met. The shim or separate block shall be placed at the
corner of the film holder or close to that part of the area of
interest that is furthest from the central beam. This is the worst
case position from a beam angle standpoint that a discontinuity
would be in. The shim or separate block dimensions shall exceed
the penetrameter (IQI) dimensions such that the outline of at
least three sides of the penetrameter (IQI) image shall be
visible on the radiograph.

9.7.7 Film Side Penetrameter (IQI)—In the case where the
penetrameter (IQI) cannot be physically placed on the source
side and the use of a separate block technique is not practical,
penetrameters (IQI) placed on the film side may be used. The
applicable job order or contract shall dictate the requirements
for film side radiographic quality level (see 8.4).

9.8 Location Markers—The radiographic image of the loca-
tion markers for the coordination of the casting with the film
shall appear on the film, without interfering with the
interpretation, in such an arrangement that it is evident that the
required coverage was obtained. These marker positions shall
be marked on the casting and the position of the markers shall
be maintained on the part during the complete radiographic
cycle. The RSS shall show all marker locations.

9.9 Radiographic Identification—A system of positive iden-
tification of the film shall be used and each film shall have a
unique identification relating it to the item being examined. As
a minimum, the following additional information shall appear
on each radiograph or in the records accompanying each

(1) Identification of organization making the radiograph,
(2) Date of exposure,
(3) Identification of the part, component or system and,

where applicable, the weld joint in the component or system,

(4) Whether the radiograph is an original or repaired area.

9.10 Subsequent Exposure Identification— All repair radio-
graphs after the original (initial) shall have an examination
status designation that indicates the reason. Subsequent radio-
graphs made by reason of a repaired area shall be identified
with the letter “R” followed by the respective repair cycle (that
is, R-1 for the first repair, R-2 for the second repair, etc.).
Subsequent radiographs that are necessary as a result of
additional surface preparation should be identified by the
letters “REG.”

9.11 Multiple Film Techniques—Two or more films of equal
or different speeds in the same cassette are allowed, provided
prescribed quality level and density requirements are met (see
9.7.2 and 9.7.5).

9.12 Radiographic Techniques:
9.12.1 Single Wall Technique—Except as provided in 9.12.2

or 9.12.3, radiography shall be performed using a technique in
which the radiation passes through only one wall.

9.12.2 Double Wall Technique with I.D. of 4 in. [100 mm]
and Less—For castings with an inside diameter of 4 in.
[100 mm] or less, a technique may be used in which the
radiation passes through both walls and both walls are viewed
for acceptance on the same film. An adequate number of
exposures shall be taken to ensure that required coverage has
been obtained.

9.12.3 Double Wall Technique with I.D. of Over 4 in. [100
mm]—For castings with an inside diameter greater than 4 in.
[100mm], a technique may be used in which the radiation
passes through both walls but only the wall closest to the film
is being examined for acceptance. In this instance, the IQI(s)
shall be positioned such that their distance from the film is
comparable to the film-to-object distance of the object being

9.13 Safety—Radiographic procedures shall comply with
applicable city, state, and federal regulations.

E1030/E1030M − 15


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10. Radiograph Evaluation

10.1 Film Quality—Verify that the radiograph meets the
quality requirements specified in 8.3, 8.4, 8.6, 9.5.2 and 9.7.

10.2 Film Evaluation—Determine the acceptance or rejec-
tion of the casting by comparing the radiographic image to the
agreed upon acceptance criteria (see 8.5) based on the actual
casting thickness in which the flaw resides.

11. Reference Radiographs

11.1 Reference Radiographs E155, E186, E192, E272,
E280, E310, E446, E505, E689, E802, and E1320 are graded
radiographic illustrations of various casting discontinuities.
These reference radiographs may be used to help establish
acceptance criteria and may also be useful as radiographic
interpretation training aids.

12. Report

12.1 The following radiographic records shall be main-
tained as agreed upon between purchaser and supplier:

12.1.1 Radiographic standard shooting sketch,
12.1.2 Weld repair documentation,
12.1.3 Film,
12.1.4 Film interpretation record containing as a minimum: Disposition of each radiograph (acceptable or

rejectable), If rejectable, cause for rejection (shrink, gas, etc.), Surface indication verified by visual examination

(mold, marks, etc.), and Signature of the film interpreter.

13. Keywords

13.1 castings; gamma-ray; nondestructive testing; radio-
graphic; radiography; X-ray


(Nonmandatory Information)


X1.1 The radiographic standard shooting sketch (RSS) pro-
vides the radiographic operator and the radiographic interpreter
with pertinent information regarding the examination of a
casting. The RSS is designed to standardize radiographic
methodologies associated with casting examination; it may
also provide a means of a purchaser and supplier agreement,
prior to initiation of the examination on a production basis. The
use of a RSS is advantageous due to the many configurations
associated with castings and the corresponding variations in
techniques for examination of any particular one. The RSS
provides a map of location marker placement, directions for
source and film arrangement, and instructions for all other
parameters associated with radiography of a casting. This
information serves to provide the most efficient method for
controlling the quality and consistency of the resultant radio-
graphic representations.

X1.2 The RSS usually consists of an instruction sheet and
sketch(es) of the casting: the instruction sheet specifies the
radiographic equipment, materials, and technique-acceptance
parameters for each location; the sketch(es) illustrate(s) the
location, orientation, and the source and film arrangement for
each location. Figs. X1.1-X1.3 of this appendix provide a
typical instruction sheet and sketch sheets. As a minimum, the
RSS should provide the following information. All spaces shall
be filled in unless not applicable; in those cases, the space shall
be marked NA.

X1.2.1 The instruction sheet should provide the following:
X1.2.1.1 Company preparing RSS and activity performing

X1.2.1.2 Casting identification including:

(1) Drawing number,
(2) Casting identification number,

(3) Descriptive name (for example, pump casting, valve
body, etc.),

(4) Material type and material specification,
(5) Heat number, and
(6) Pattern number.

X1.2.1.3 Surface condition at time of radiography (as cast,
rough machined, finished machined).

X1.2.1.4 Spaces for approval (as applicable).
X1.2.1.5 Radiographic Technique Parameters for Each Lo-

(1) Radiographic location designation,
(2) Source type and size,
(3) Finished thickness,
(4) Thickness when radiographed,
(5) Penetrameters,
(6) Source to film distance,
(7) Film type and quantity,
(8) Film size,
(9) Required penetrameter (IQI) quality level,
(10) Radiographic acceptance standard, and
(11) Applicable radiographic severity level.

X1.2.2 The sketch(es) should provide the following:
X1.2.2.1 Location marker placement.
X1.2.2.2 Location of foundry’s identification pad or symbol

on the casting.
X1.2.2.3 Designation of areas that require radiography (as

X1.2.2.4 Designation of areas that are considered impracti-

cal or very difficult to radiograph (see 1.2 and 8.2).
X1.2.2.5 Radiographic source and film arrangement and

radiation beam direction for each location.

NOTE X1.1—The RSS should designate the involved locations and

E1030/E1030M − 15


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NOTE 1—For general application, this alignment provides the most effective compromise of quality radiography and maximum obtainable coverage.
FIG. X2.1 Preferred Source and Film Alignment

NOTE 1—This alignment provides a suitable alternative when other casting appendages (bosses, flanges, etc.) project into the radiation path as
illustrated in Fig. X2.2 when this alignment is used, additional losses in coverage (as opposed to Fig. X2.1) should be expected and noted accordingly
on the applicable RSS.

FIG. X2.2 Permissible Source and Film Alignment when Fig. X2.1 Cannot Be Applied Due to Casting Geometry

NOTE 1—This alignment is permissible if the radiation source energy and film multi-load capabilities are sufficient to afford compliance with the
technique requirements stipulated herein. This alignment will generally require the use of filters or masking to reduce the influence of radiation that
undercuts the thicker areas and reduces overall radiographic quality.

FIG. X2.3 Allowable Source Film Alignment as Governed by Source Energy and Multi-Film Load Acceptable Density Latitude

E1030/E1030M − 15


Page 11



X3.1 Certain casting geometry configurations are inacces-
sible for conventional source and film arrangements that will
provide meaningful radiographic results. These areas generally
involve the juncture of two casting sections. The following
illustrations (see Fig. X3.1 and Fig. X3.2) provide typical

examples of such areas.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned
in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk
of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

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if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
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FIG. X3.1 Areas Involving Flanges

FIG. X3.2 Areas Involving Other Junctures

E1030/E1030M − 15


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