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Titleen 01542_1999 Pull Off
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BRITISH STANDARD BS EN
1542:1999

The European Standard EN 1542:1999 has the status of a
British Standard

ICS 91.080.40

NO COPYING WITHOUT BSI PERMISSION EXCEPT AS PERMITTED BY COPYRIGHT LAW

Products and systems
for the protection and
repair of concrete
structures Ð Test
methods Ð
Measurement of bond
strength by pull-off

Page 2

This British Standard, having
been prepared under the
direction of the Sector
Committee for Building and Civil
Engineering, was published under
the authority of the Standards
Committee and comes into effect
on 15 August 1999

 BSI 08-1999

ISBN 0 580 32439 7

BS EN 1542:1999

Amendments issued since publication

Amd. No. Date Comments

National foreword

This British Standard is the English language version of EN 1542:1999.

The UK participation in its preparation was entrusted by Technical Committee
B/517, Concrete, to Subcommittee B/517/8, Protection and repair of concrete
structures, which has the responsibility to:

Ð aid enquirers to understand the text;

Ð present to the responsible European committee any enquiries on the
interpretation, or proposals for change, and keep the UK interests informed;

Ð monitor related international and European developments and promulgate
them in the UK.

A list of organizations represented on this subcommittee can be obtained on request
to its secretary.

Cross-references

The British Standards which implement international or European publications
referred to in this document may be found in the BSI Standards Catalogue under the
section entitled ªInternational Standards Correspondence Indexº, or by using the
ªFindº facility of the BSI Standards Electronic Catalogue.

A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a
contract. Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application.

Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity
from legal obligations.

Summary of pages

This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, the EN title page,
pages 2 to 7 and a back cover.

The BSI copyright notice displayed throughout this document indicates when the
document was last issued.

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CEN
European Committee for Standardization

Comite EuropeÂen de Normalisation

EuropaÈisches Komitee fuÈ r Normung

Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36, B-1050 Brussels

 1999 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national
Members.

Ref. No. EN 1542:1999 E

EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 1542

NORME EUROPEÂ ENNE

EUROPAÈ ISCHE NORM April 1999

ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.40

English version

Products and systems for the protection and repair of
concrete structures Ð Test methods Ð Measurement of

bond strength by pull-off

Produits et systeÁmes pour la protection et la
reÂparation des structures en beÂton Ð MeÂthodes
d'essais Ð Mesurage de l'adheÂrence par traction
directe

Produkte und Systeme fuÈr den Schutz und die
Instandsetzung von Betontragwerken Ð
PruÈfverfahren Ð Messung der Haftfestigkeit im
Abreiûversuch

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 March 1999.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations
which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a
national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical
references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to
the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German).
A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a
CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the
same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and
United Kingdom.

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Page 2
EN 1542:1999

 BSI 08-1999

Foreword

This European Standard has been prepared by
Technical Committee CEN/TC 104, Concrete
(performance, production, placing and compliance
criteria), the Secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a
national standard, either by publication of an identical
text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 1999,
and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn
at the latest by October 1999.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations,
the national standards organizations of the following
countries are bound to implement this European
Standard: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland,
Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

This European Standard describes a method for
determining the pull-off bond strength of repair
products and systems applied to a reference concrete.
The method is derived from EN 24624, Paints and
Varnishes Ð Pull-off test (ISO 4624:1978), which is not
appropriate for repair products and systems.

Contents

Page

Foreword 2

1 Scope 3

2 Normative references 3

3 Principle 3

4 Equipment 3

5 Preparation 4

5.1 Preparation of the surface for
application of the product 4

5.2 Number of test specimens 4

6 Procedure 5

6.1 Applying the repair products or
system 5

6.2 Storage 5

7 Carrying out test 5

7.1 Core drilling 6

7.2 Applying the dolly 6

7.3 Setting the pull-off equipment 6

7.4 Applying the load 6

7.5 Determination of the type of failure 6

7.6 Validity of the test result 6

7.7 Calculation 6

8 Test report 7

Annex A (normative) Summary of
temperatures and humidities for the curing,
conditioning and testing of repair products
and systems 7

A.1 Curing 7

A.2 Conditioning and testing 7

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EN 1542:1999

 BSI 08-1999

1 Scope
This European Standard is one of a series dealing with
products and systems for the protection and repair of
concrete structures. It specifies a method for
measuring the tensile bond strength of grouts, mortars,
concretes and surface protection systems (SPS) used
for the protection and repair of concrete.

The provisions of the standard are applicable to
products and systems applied to a maximum thickness
of 50 mm in the test method but some products may
be used in repairs where it is applied at more than
50 mm thickness.

2 Normative references
This European Standard incorporates by dated or
undated reference, provisions from other publications.
These normative references are cited at the
appropriate places in the text and the publications are
listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent
amendments to or revisions of any of these
publications apply to this European Standard only
when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For
undated references the latest edition of the publication
referred to applies.

EN 196-1, Methods of testing cement Ð
Part 1: Determination of strength.

EN 1504, Products and systems for the protection and
repair of concrete structures Ð Definitions,
requirements, quality control and evaluation of
conformity.

EN 24624:1992, Paints and varnishes Ð Pull-off test
(ISO 4624:1978).

prEN 1766, Products and systems for the protection
and repair of concrete structures Ð Test methods Ð
Reference concretes for testing.

ISO 554:1976, Standard atmospheres for conditioning
and/or testing Ð Specifications.

3 Principle
This Standard describes a method for measuring the
tensile bond strength of repair products and systems
applied to standard reference concrete specimens
prepared according to prEN 1766. The method of test
is by direct dolly pull-off using a dolly bonded to the
surface of the repair product or system, with the test
area having been defined by coring through the
surface.

4 Equipment

4.1 Mortar mixer, in accordance with EN 196-1 or
concrete mixer, (forced action pan mixer).

4.2 Compaction tools and equipment, for repair
grouts, mortars and concretes according to EN 196-1.

The compaction method shall be in accordance with
the manufacturer's instructions.

4.3 Standard laboratory climate, in accordance with
the requirements of annex A.

4.4 Moulds, for producing a uniform thickness of
repair product or systems on top of the reference
concrete specimen, made from non-absorbent, rigid
material, not attacked by cement paste or polymers,
into which the reference concrete specimen shall be
placed (see Figure 2).

4.5 Vernier calipers, accurate to not less than 0,1 mm.

4.6 Rapid hardening two component epoxy adhesive,
or similar, as recommended by the manufacturer.

4.7 Circular dollies, with a diameter of (50 ± 0,5) mm
and with a thickness of at least 20 mm if made of
steel, or with a thickness of at least 30 mm if made of
aluminium. On the side to which the adhesive is to be
applied, the dolly shall be flat with a tolerance
of 0,1 mm per 50 mm length.

The dollies shall be provided with a means for
attaching the pull-off test equipment (see 4.11) that
ensures the load can be applied normal to the surface
under test, without bending or shear forces being
applied to the test area.

The method used for attaching the dolly to the pull-off
test equipment shall normally incorporate a spherical
seat, or otherwise the spherical seat shall be within the
pull-off test equipment, to ensure the requirements of
this subclause can be met.

4.8 Grinding equipment, for cleaning adhesive from
the used dollies.

4.9 Steel wire brush and soft-bristled brush.

4.10 Diamond core drill and barrel, that enable the
drilling of a (50 ± 1,0) mm cylinder through the repair
product and system. The core barrel should have a
cutting edge that stands proud of the cylinder by
(1,5 ± 0,5) mm (to reduce lateral forces being applied to
the test area).

4.11 Pull off test equipment, complying with EN 24624
with a pulling capacity sufficient to cause tensile bond
failure of the specimen. The accuracy shall be
within ±2 %. (A capacity of 10 kN is sufficient for most
applications). The pull-off equipment shall be capable
of applying the load according to 3.1 of EN 24624:1992
and shall be provided with a measurement device that
displays the exerted force by an analogue or digital
system. The measurement device shall retain the
reading of maximum force exerted.

4.12 Concrete test specimens, of dimension
300 mm3 300 mm 3 100 mm, with a maximum
aggregate size of 8 mm or 10 mm and prepared with a
grit-blasted surface, according to prEN 1766. The
strength grade shall be in accordance with EN 1504
series.

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EN 1542:1999

 BSI 08-1999

Dimensions in millimetres

Key

1
2

Annulus around test area, formed by coring
50 mm diameter steel or aluminium dolly

Figure 1 Ð Plan of specimen showing dolly locations

5 Preparation
Unless the repair product or system is intended to be
used on horizontal surfaces only, as advised by the
manufacturer, the application shall be to a vertical
surface.

5.1 Preparation of the surface for application of
the product

The repair product or system shall be applied to the
grit-blasted surface of the reference concrete specimen
(see 4.12) in either the dry or wet condition, as
defined in annex A.

To ensure the grit-blasted surface of the reference
concrete specimens is free from contamination, it shall
be cleaned using the steel wire brush (see 4.9) under
running water immediately before the final
conditioning and applying the repair product or
systems, as follows:

Ð for a wet surface, the reference specimen shall be
stood upright for 30 min;

Ð for a dry surface the reference specimen shall be
conditioned for seven days in the standard
laboratory climate (see 4.3) and immediately before
applying the product, the test specimen shall be
cleaned again using the soft-bristled brush.

Following cleaning and conditioning, the bottom
surface of the test specimen shall be indelibly marked
and then the specimen placed on blocks, inside a
mould (see 4.4) if required. The grit-blasted and
cleaned surface shall then be secured in a vertical
position (unless the product is intended to be used for
application to horizontal surfaces only).

5.2 Number of test specimens

A minimum of one test specimen is required for each
repair product or system, from which five bond tests
shall be carried out. The arrangement of the test areas,
the sequence of tests and the numbering system to be
employed is shown in Figure 1. The minimum
acceptable number of tests giving a normal type of
failure is three (see 7.6).

NOTE Owing to the risk of some results being invalidated, due
to abnormal types of failure, additional test specimens should be
prepared, thereby avoiding delays if repeat testing is required.

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EN 1542:1999

 BSI 08-1999

Dimensions in millimetres

Key

1
2
3
4

Mould
Product of system
Thickness adjusted by fixing mould in position
Reference concrete specimen

Figure 2 Ð Section through specimen, showing mould in place

6 Procedure

6.1 Applying the repair products or system

The product or system, together with the containers
and tools to be used for preparing the mix and its
application, shall be placed in the standard laboratory
climate (see 4.3) for at least 24 h before use.

Unless otherwise instructed by the manufacturer, use
the following mixing technique for preparing the
specimens.

For PCC and cementitious mortar, use the mortar
mixer (see 4.1) set to a low speed, pouring the gauging
liquid to the bowl and adding the dry ingredients,
mixing for a total period of 2 min.

Where manufacturer's instructions preclude use of part
bags of materials, a concrete mixer (see 4.1) or other
method recommended by the manufacturer shall be
used.

NOTE It has been found that certain types of repair mortar can
foam excessively under the action of the mortar mixer specified in
EN 196-1. An alternative is to use a concrete mixer (see 4.1). The
air content, strength and density of the CC and PCC mixes should
normally be determined to characterize the mortar under test.

6.2 Storage

The test specimens prepared in the vertical position
shall be stored in this position for three days under the
curing conditions specified in annex A. During the
storage period, the faces of the test specimens shall be
positioned at least 100 mm apart.

Any moulds (see 4.4) shall be removed 24 h after
application of the product or system of products and
then returned to the vertical position, unless stated
otherwise by the manufacturer.

Following the three days of vertical curing, the
specimens may be laid horizontal and curing continued
for the time specified in annex A.

7 Carrying out test
Following the curing period, the test specimen shall be
conditioned for seven days by storage in a standard
laboratory climate, as specified in annex A.

Towards the end of this seven day period, the
specimen shall be prepared by fixing the dollies such
that testing can take place at the end of the seventh
day.

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EN 1542:1999

 BSI 08-1999

7.1 Core drilling

Fasten the core drill and test specimen so that they
cannot move or become loose. The drill should be free
from significant vibration and should not allow lateral
movement of the coring bit. Drill with a diamond
coring barrel (see 4.10) with an axis at (90 ± 1)8 to the
surface. Drill through the repair product or system to a
depth of (15 ± 5) mm into the concrete substrate.
Remove the diamond coring barrel without damaging
the test specimen.

NOTE The total drill-in depth is:

di = dd + (15
± 5)

where

di is the total drill-in depth, in millimetres;

dd is the thickness of the mortar layer, in millimetres.

7.2 Applying the dolly

Clean the dolly using the grinding equipment as
necessary (see 4.8), then degrease and dry the side of
the dolly (see 4.7) onto which the adhesive (see 4.6) is
to be applied. Apply a thin layer of adhesive to the
surface of the specimen so that the adhesive forms a
uniform layer between the dolly and the substrate. No
adhesive shall penetrate into the clearance made by
the coring barrel.

Place the dolly on the core face so that the centre of
the dolly coincides with the centre of the core. Apply
sufficient pressure to the dolly to expel air, carefully
and immediately removing any extruded adhesive.
Allow the adhesive to harden in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions.

7.3 Setting the pull-off equipment

The pull off equipment (see 4.11) and its accessories
shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's
instructions.

Place the pull-off equipment concentrically over the
dolly and at (90 ± 1)8 to the cored surface. Secure the
equipment in such a way that its position will not
change during the test.

7.4 Applying the load

Increase the load continuously and evenly at a rate of
(0,05 ± 0,01) MPa/s until failure occurs. Record the load
at failure and then determine the mean diameter of the
specimen at the failure face as the average result of
measurements taken perpendicularly to each other,
across the core, using the vernier calipers (see 4.5).

Avoid excessive fluctuations in applying the load, liable
to occur for instance when using certain types of
manually operated pull-off equipment.

7.5 Determination of the type of failure

From a visual assessment, determine the type of failure
of the specimen. The types of failure are as follows:

A Cohesion failure in the concrete substrate;

A/B Adhesion failure between the substrate and
the first layer (e.g. primer, bonding slurry or
mortar);

B Cohesion failure in the first layer;

B/C Adhesion failure between the first and second
layer;

C Cohesion failure in the second layer;

(Etc., as defined by the particular product or system
under test)

-/Y Adhesion failure between the last layer and
adhesive layer (e.g. C/Y in a two-layer repair
system);

Y Cohesion failure in the adhesive layer;

Y/Z Adhesion failure between the adhesive layer
and the dolly (which is Z).

If there is a combination of these types of failure, a
visual inspection shall be made of the failure face to
find the percentage of each type of failure, based on
the surface area, for example:

A : A/B : B = 40 % : 10 % : 50 %

7.6 Validity of the test result

For each test location, the load at failure is valid for all
combinations of failure type, except where an
abnormal failure occurs. An abnormal failure is where
the adhesive layer fails prematurely (i.e. where the
surface includes part of a type Y, type Y/Z or type -/Y
failure). In this event the tensile bond strength for that
location shall not be calculated.
NOTE Abnormal failures may suggest the adhesive is unsuitable
for use with the repair product or system under test and the
manufacturer's advice should be obtained.

7.7 Calculation

For each test location yielding a normal failure,
calculate the tensile bond strength, to the nearest
0,1 MPa, using the following formula:

fh =
4Fh
πD2

where

fh is the bond of the test specimen, in
megapascals;

Fh is the failure load, in Newtons;

D is the mean diameter of the test specimen, in
millimetres.

The mean tensile bond strength shall then be
determined from a minimum of three normal test
results. If many abnormal failures occur, as defined
in 7.6, further test specimens shall be prepared and
tested until the required minimum number of results is
obtained.

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EN 1542:1999

 BSI 08-1999

8 Test report
The test report shall include the following information:

a) a reference to this European Standard, including
the number, title and date of issue;

b) the place, date and time of sampling and testing;

c) identification of the type, origin and designation
of the repair product or system under test;

d) methods used for preparation, curing and
conditioning of the specimens;

e) the thickness of repair mortar;

f) the test date, age, type and roughness of the
concrete;

g) the diameter, thickness and the material of the
dolly used and the type of adhesive;

h) a description of the pull-off test equipment,
stating the make, type, load capacity and
measurement range;

i) the failure load and the mean diameter for each
location number from Figure 1;

j) the individual tensile bond strength test results,
and the mean results;

k) the type of failure for each location;

l) any anomalies or points of note recorded during
testing.

Annex A (normative)

Summary of temperatures and humidities
for the curing, conditioning and testing of
repair products and systems

A.1 Curing

A.1.1 CC (grouts, mortars and concretes)

Ð prepare as EN 196-1, cover in film for 24 h;

Ð demould after 24 h;

Ð cure under water at (21 ± 2) 8C for 27 days.

A.1.2 PCC (grouts, mortars and concretes)

Ð prepare as EN 196-1, cover in film for 24 h;

Ð demould after 24 h and wrap in film for 48 h;

Ð unwrap and cure for 25 days in a standard
laboratory climate of (21 ± 2) 8C and (60 ± 10) %
relative humidity.

A.1.3 PC (grouts, mortars and concretes)

Ð prepare as ISO 554;

Ð cure for 7 days at (21 ± 2) 8C and (60 ± 10) %
relative humidity.

A.2 Conditioning and testing

For specific applications, the following conditions
apply:

A.2.1 Standard laboratory climate (Dry
conditioning):

Ð take from the curing/storage environment and
condition for 7 days in a standard laboratory climate
of (21 ± 2) 8C and (60 ± 10) % relative humidity.

A.2.2 Wet conditioning:

Ð Immerse for 7 days at (21 ± 2) 8C, or for CC take
directly for test after 28 days of immersion;

Ð remove all surface water by standing upright for
30 min before using for tests.

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