Download Fundamentals Handbook - Instrumentation and Control PDF

TitleFundamentals Handbook - Instrumentation and Control
TagsThermocouple Electrical Resistance And Conductance Inductor Pressure Measurement Sensor
File Size4.7 MB
Total Pages280
Table of Contents
                            ABSTRACT
FOREWORD
OVERVIEW
Module 1 Temperature Detectors
	TABLE OF CONTENTS
	LIST OF FIGURES
	LIST OF TABLES
	REFERENCES
	OBJECTIVES
	RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS (RTDs)
		Temperature
		RTD Construction
		Summary
	THERMOCOUPLES
		Thermocouple Construction
		Thermocouple Operation
		Summary
	FUNCTIONAL USES OF TEMPERATURE DETECTORS
		Functions of Temperature Detectors
		Detector Problems
		Environmental Concerns
		Summary
	TEMPERATURE DETECTION CIRCUITRY
		Bridge Circuit Construction
		Bridge Circuit Operation
		Temperature Detection Circuit
		Temperature Compensation
		Summary
Module 2 Pressure Detectors
	TABLE OF CONTENTS
	LIST OF FIGURES
	LIST OF TABLES
	REFERENCES
	OBJECTIVES
	PRESSURE DETECTORS
		Bellows-Type Detectors
		Bourdon Tube-Type Detectors
		Summary
	PRESSURE DETECTOR FUNCTIONAL USES
		Pressure Detector Functions
		Detector Failure
		Environmental Concerns
		Summary
	PRESSURE DETECTION CIRCUITRY
		Resistance-Type Transducers
		Inductance-Type Transducers
		Capacitive-Type Transducers
		Detection Circuitry
		Summary
Module 3 Level Detectors
	TABLE OF CONTENTS
	LIST OF FIGURES
	LIST OF TABLES
	REFERENCES
	OBJECTIVES
	LEVEL DETECTORS
		Gauge Glass
		Ball Float
		Chain Float
		Magnetic Bond Method
		Conductivity Probe Method
		Differential Pressure Level Detectors
		Summary
	DENSITY COMPENSATION
		Specific Volume
		Reference Leg Temperature Considerations
		Pressurizer Level Instruments
		Steam Generator Level Instrument
		Summary
	LEVEL DETECTION CIRCUITRY
		Remote Indication
		Environmental Concerns
		Summary
Module 4 Flow Detectors
	TABLE OF CONTENTS
	LIST OF FIGURES
	LIST OF TABLES
	REFERENCES
	OBJECTIVES
	HEAD FLOW METERS
		Orifice Plate
		Venturi Tube
		Dall Flow Tube
		Pitot Tube
		Summary
	OTHER FLOW METERS
		Area Flow Meter
		Displacement Meter
		Hot-Wire Anemometer
		Electromagnetic Flowmeter
		Ultrasonic Flow Equipment
		Summary
	STEAM FLOW DETECTION
		Summary
	FLOW CIRCUITRY
		Circuitry
		Use of Flow Indication
		Environmental Concerns
		Summary
Module 5 Position Indicators
	TABLE OF CONTENTS
	LIST OF FIGURES
	LIST OF TABLES
	REFERENCES
	OBJECTIVES
	SYNCHRO EQUIPMENT
		Synchro Equipment
		Summary
	SWITCHES
		Limit Switches
		Reed Switches
		Summary
	VARIABLE OUTPUT DEVICES
		Potentiometer
		Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT)
		Summary
	POSITION INDICATION CIRCUITRY
		Environmental Concerns
		Summary
Fundamentals Handbook, Instrumentation and Control, Volume 2.pdf
	ABSTRACT
	FOREWORD
	OVERVIEW
	Module 6 Radiation Detectors
		TABLE OF CONTENTS
		LIST OF FIGURES
		LIST OF TABLES
		REFERENCES
		OBJECTIVES
		RADIATION DETECTION TERMINOLOGY
			Electron-Ion Pair
			Specific Ionization
			Stopping Power
			Summary
		RADIATION TYPES
			Alpha Particle
			Beta Particle
			Gamma Ray
			Neutron
			Summary
		GAS-FILLED DETECTOR
			Summary
		DETECTOR VOLTAGE
			Applied Voltage
			Summary
		PROPORTIONAL COUNTER
			Summary
		PROPORTIONAL COUNTER CIRCUITRY
			Summary
		IONIZATION CHAMBER
			Summary
		COMPENSATED ION CHAMBER
			Summary
		ELECTROSCOPE IONIZATION CHAMBER
			Summary
		GEIGER-MÜLLER DETECTOR
			Summary
		SCINTILLATION COUNTER
			Summary
		GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY
			Summary
		MISCELLANEOUS DETECTORS
			Self-Powered Neutron Detector
			Wide Range Fission Chamber
			Activation Foils and Flux Wires
			Photographic Film
			Summary
		CIRCUITRY AND CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
			Terminology
			Components
			Summary
		SOURCE RANGE NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTATION
			Summary
		INTERMEDIATE RANGE NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTATION
			Summary
		POWER RANGE NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTATION
			Summary
	Module 7 Process Controls
		TABLE OF CONTENTS
		LIST OF FIGURES
		LIST OF TABLES
		REFERENCES
		OBJECTIVES
		PRINCIPLES OF CONTROL SYSTEMS
			Introduction
			Terminology
			Automatic Control System
			Functions of Automatic Control
			Elements of Automatic Control
			Feedback Control
			Summary
		CONTROL LOOP DIAGRAMS
			Terminology
			Feedback Control System Block Diagram
			Process Time Lags
			Stability of Automatic Control Systems
			Summary
		TWO POSITION CONTROL SYSTEMS
			Controllers
			Two Position Controller
			Example of Two Position Control
			Modes of Automatic Control
			Summary
		PROPORTIONAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
			Control Mode
			Proportional Band
			Example of a Proportional Process Control System
			Summary
		RESET (INTEGRAL) CONTROL SYSTEMS
			Reset Control (Integral)
			Definition of Integral Control
			Example of an Integral Flow Control System
			Properties of Integral Control
			Summary
		PROPORTIONAL PLUS RESET CONTROL SYSTEMS
			Proportional Plus Reset
			Example of Proportional Plus Reset Control
			Reset Windup
			Summary
		PROPORTIONAL PLUS RATE CONTROL SYSTEMS
			Proportional-Derivative
			Definition of Derivative Control
			Example of Proportional Plus Rate Control
			Applications
			Summary
		PROPORTIONAL-INTEGRAL-DERIVATIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS
			Proportional-Integral-Derivative
			Proportional Plus Reset Plus Rate Controller Actions
			Summary
		CONTROLLERS
			Controllers
			Control Stations
			Self-Balancing Control Stations
			Summary
		VALVE ACTUATORS
			Actuators
			Pneumatic Actuators
			Hydraulic Actuators
			Electric Solenoid Actuators
			Electric Motor Actuators
			Summary
	CONCLUDING MATERIAL
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 140

RADIATION TYPES Radiation Detectors

RADIATION TYPES

The four types of radiation discussed in this chapter are alpha, beta, gamma, and
neutron.

EO 1.3 DESCRIBE the following types of radiation to include
the definition and interactions with matter.
a. Alpha (α)
b. Beta (β)
c. Gamma (γ)
d. Neutron (n)

Alpha Particle

The alpha particle is a helium nucleus produced from the radioactive decay of heavy metals and
some nuclear reactions. Alpha decay often occurs among nuclei that have a favorable
neutron/proton ratio, but contain too many nucleons for stability. The alpha particle is a massive
particle consisting of an assembly of two protons and two neutrons and a resultant charge of +2.

Alpha particles are the least penetrating radiation. The major energy loss for alpha particles is
due to electrical excitation and ionization. As an alpha particle passes through air or soft tissue,
it loses, on the average, 35 eV per ion pair created. Due to its highly charged state, large mass,
and low velocity, the specific ionization of an alpha particle is very high.

Figure 1 illustrates the specific ionization of an alpha particle, on the order of tens of thousands
of ion pairs per centimeter in air. An alpha particle travels a relatively straight path over a short
distance.

IC-06 Page 4 Rev. 0

Page 141

Radiation Detectors RADIATION TYPES

Figure 1 Alpha Particle Specific Ionization -vs- Distance Traveled in Air

Beta Particle

The beta particle is an ordinary electron or positron ejected from the nucleus of a beta-unstable
radioactive atom. The beta has a single negative or positive electrical charge and a very small
mass.

The interaction of a beta particle and an orbital electron leads to electrical excitation and
ionization of the orbital electron. These interactions cause the beta particle to lose energy in
overcoming the electrical forces of the orbital electron. The electrical forces act over long
distances; therefore, the two particles do not have to come into direct contact for ionization to
occur.

The amount of energy lost by the beta particle depends upon both its distance of approach to the
electron and its kinetic energy. Beta particles and orbital electrons have the same mass;
therefore, they are easily deflected by collision. Because of this fact, the beta particle follows
a tortuous path as it passes through absorbing material. The specific ionization of a beta particle
is low due to its small mass, small charge, and relatively high speed of travel.

Rev. 0 Page 5 IC-06

Page 279

Process Controls VALVE ACTUATORS

A major advantage of solenoid actuators is their quick operation. Also, they are much easier to
install than pneumatic or hydraulic actuators. However, solenoid actuators have two
disadvantages. First, they have only two positions: fully open and fully closed. Second, they
don’t produce much force, so they usually only operate relatively small valves.

Electric Motor Actuators

Electric motor actuators vary widely in their design and applications. Some electric motor
actuators are designed to operate in only two positions (fully open or fully closed). Other electric
motors can be positioned between the two positions. A typical electric motor actuator is shown
in Figure 39. Its major parts include an electric motor, clutch and gear box assembly, manual
handwheel, and stem connected to a valve.

Figure 39 Electric Motor Actuator

The motor moves the stem through the gear assembly. The motor reverses its rotation to either
open or close the valve. The clutch and clutch lever disconnects the electric motor from the gear
assembly and allows the valve to be operated manually with the handwheel.

Most electric motor actuators are equipped with limit switches, torque limiters, or both. Limit
switches de-energize the electric motor when the valve has reached a specific position. Torque

Rev. 0 Page 59 IC-07

Page 280

VALVE ACTUATORS Process Controls

limiters de-energize the electric motor when the amount of turning force has reached a specified
value. The turning force normally is greatest when the valve reaches the fully open or fully
closed position. This feature can also prevent damage to the actuator or valve if the valve binds
in an intermediate position.

Summary

The important information in this chapter is summarized below.

Valve Actuator Summary

Pneumatic actuators utilize combined air and spring forces for quick accurate
responses for almost any size valve with valve position ranging from 0-100%.

Hydraulic actuators use fluid displacement to move a piston in a cylinder
positioning the valve as needed for 0-100% fluid flow. This type actuator is
incorporated when a large amount of force is necessary to operate the valve.

Solenoid actuators are used on small valves and employ an electromagnet to
move the stem which allows the valve to either be fully open or fully closed.

Equipped with limit switches and/or torque limiters, the electric motor actuator
has the capability of 0-100% control and has not only a motor but also a manual
handwheel, and a clutch and gearbox assembly.

end of text.
CONCLUDING MATERIAL

Review activities: Preparing activity:

DOE - ANL-W, BNL, EG&G Idaho, DOE - NE-73
EG&G Mound, EG&G Rocky Flats, Project Number 6910-0019/2
LLNL, LANL, MMES, ORAU, REECo,
WHC, WINCO, WEMCO, and WSRC.

IC-07 Page 60 Rev. 0

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