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TitleHandbook of Building Materials for Fire Protection
Author
TagsNfpa 13 Building Materials Internal Combustion Engine
LanguageEnglish
File Size5.4 MB
Total Pages562
Table of Contents
                            Copyright
CONTENTS
CONTRIBUTORS
PREFACE
CHAPTER 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF THE FIRE HAZARDS OF MATERIALS
	1.0 INTRODUCTION
	1.1 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMBUSTION
		1.1.1 Stoichiometry
		1.1.2 Thermochemistry
		1.1.3 Flame Temperatures
	1.2 GASES, MISTS, AND DUSTS
		1.2.1 Flammability Limits for Gases and Vapors
		1.2.2 Ignition Energy
		1.2.3 Flame Speed
		1.2.4 Ignition of Mists and Dusts
	1.3 LIQUIDS
		1.3.1 Fire Point
		1.3.2 Vapor Pressure
		1.3.3 Flammability Limits of Liquids
		1.3.4 Liquid Mixtures
		1.3.5 Burning Rate
	1.4 SOLIDS
		1.4.1 Flaming Ignition of Solid Materials
		1.4.2 Critical Heat Flux and Effective Ignition Temperature
		1.4.3 Pyrolysis and Burning Rates
		1.4.4 Flame Spread
		1.4.5 Self-Heating and Smoldering Combustion
		1.4.6 Effects of Fire Retardants
	1.5 SMOKE PRODUCTION
		1.5.1 Vision Obscuration
		1.5.2 Toxicity of Combustion Products
		1.5.3 Nonthermal Damage
	1.6 ENCLOSURE EFFECTS
	1.7 SUMMARY
	REFERENCES
CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS, STANDARDS, AND TESTING
	2.1 INTRODUCTION
	2.2 MATERIALS CHARACTERISTICS
	2.3 SOFTENING AND MELTING BEHAVIORS OF MATERIALS
	2.4 VAPORIZATION, DECOMPOSITION, AND CHARRING BEHAVIORS OF MATERIALS
	2.5 IGNITION BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS
	2.6 FLAME SPREAD, FIRE GROWTH, AND BURNING BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS
	2.7 POPULAR STANDARD TEST METHODS FOR THE BURNING BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS
		2.7.1 ASTM D 5865 and ISO 1716: Test Method for Gross Heat of Complete Combustion [13,14]
		2.7.2 ASTM E 136 and ISO 1182: Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750 °C [13,14]
		2.7.3 ASTM E 906, ASTM E 2058, and ASTM E 1354 and ISO 5660: Standard Test Methods for Release Rates of Material Vapors, Heat
		2.7.4 ASTM E 119: Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials—The Fire Endurance Test [14]
		2.7.5 ASTM E 1529: Standard Test Methods for Determining Effects of Large Hydrocarbon Pool Fires †on Structural Members
	2.8 POPULAR STANDARD TEST METHODS FOR FLAME SPREAD AND FIRE GROWTH
		2.8.1 prEN ISO and FDIS 11925-2: Reaction to Fire Tests for Building Products—Part 2: Ignitability when Subjected to Direct
		2.8.2 UL 94: Standard Test Methodology for Flammability of Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices and Appliances [12]
		2.8.3 ASTM D 2863 (ISO 4589): Test Methodology for Limited Oxygen Index [14]
		2.8.4 ASTM E 162 (D 3675): Standard Test Method for Surface Flammability Using a Radiant Energy Source [14]
		2.8.5 ASTM E 1321 (ISO 5658): Standard Test Method for Determining Material Ignition and Flame Spread Properties (LIFT) [13,1
		2.8.6 ASTM E 648 (ISO 9239-1): Standard Test Method for Critical Radiant Flux of Floor-Covering Systems Using a Radiant Heat
		2.8.7 ASTM E 84: Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials [14]
		2.8.8 FM Global Approval Class 4910 [11] (NFPA 318 [55]): Standard Test Methods for Clean Room Materials
		2.8.9 ASTM E 603: Standard Guide for Room Fire Experiments [14]
	NOMENCLATURE
	REFERENCES
CHAPTER 3 PLASTICS AND RUBBER
	3.1 INTRODUCTION
	3.2 POLYMERIC MATERIALS
		3.2.1 Monomers, Polymers, and Copolymers
		3.2.2 Polymer Architectures
		3.2.3 Commercial Materials
		3.2.4 Thermodynamic Quantities
	3.3 THE BURNING PROCESS
		3.3.1 The Fire Triangle
		3.3.2 Chemical Changes during Burning
	3.4 FIRE BEHAVIOR OF PLASTICS
		3.4.1 Ignition
		3.4.2 Steady Burning
		3.4.3 Unsteady Burning
	DEFINITION OF TERMS
	REFERENCES
CHAPTER 4 FLAME RETARDANTS FOR PLASTICS
	4.1 INTRODUCTION
	4.2 OVERVIEW OF THE FLAME RETARDANTS INDUSTRY
	4.3 MECHANISMS OF FLAME RETARDANCY
	4.4 CLASSES OF COMMERCIAL FLAME RETARDANTS
		4.4.1 Hydrated Minerals
		4.4.2 Halogenated Materials
		4.4.3 Antimony Trioxide
		4.4.4 Phosphorus Additives
		4.4.5 Intumescent Flame-Retardant Systems
	4.5 POLYMER FAMILIES—SELECTION OF FLAME RETARDANT
		4.5.1 Polypropylene
		4.5.2 Polyethylene
		4.5.3 Styrenics
		4.5.4 ABS
		4.5.5 Polycarbonate
		4.5.6 PC/ABS Blends
		4.5.7 Nylon
		4.5.8 Thermoplastic Polyesters
		4.5.9 Polyvinyl Chloride
		4.5.10 Thermosets
		4.5.11 Elastomers/Rubber
	4.6 NANOCOMPOSITES
		4.6.1 Layered Silicates
		4.6.2 Polymer Nanocomposite Structures
		4.6.3 Preparation Methods
		4.6.4 Flame-Retardant Properties of Nanocomposites
		4.6.5 Mechanism of Flame Retardancy in Nanocomposites
	REFERENCES
CHAPTER 5 FIBERS AND FABRICS
	5.1 THE ROLE OF FABRICS IN FIRE PROTECTION
	5.2 FIBERS AND THEIR PROPERTIES
		5.2.1 Materials from Which Fibers Are Formed
		5.2.2 Forms of Fibers Available
		5.2.3 Fiber Properties
		5.2.4 Flammability Characteristics
		5.2.5 Flame Retardants
	5.3 FABRIC TYPES
	5.4 FLAMMABILITY OF FABRICS
		5.4.1 Characteristics of Burning Fabrics
		5.4.2 Thermal Performance Tests for Fabrics
		5.4.3 Performance Standards
	5.5 APPLICATIONS—PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
		5.5.1 Burn Injuries
		5.5.2 Flash Fires
		5.5.3 Structural and Wildlands Fires
		5.5.4 Electric Arcs
		5.5.5 Molten Metals
		5.5.6 Soiling and Cleaning of Protective Clothing
	5.6 APPLICATIONS—FURNISHINGS
		5.6.1 Structures
		5.6.2 Transportation
	5.7 CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE
	ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
	REFERENCES
	APPENDIX
CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
	6.1 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS USED IN CONSTRUCTION
		6.1.1 INTRODUCTION
		6.1.2 Construction Materials
	6.2 DEVELOPMENT OF FIRE RESISTANCE TESTING
		6.2.1 Historical Fire Events
		6.2.2 Early Fire Resistance Test Procedures
		6.2.3 Standard Fire Resistance Tests
		6.2.4 Test Equipment
		6.2.5 Failure Criteria
		6.2.6 Special Hazard Resistance Tests (“High-Rise” Curves)
	6.3 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND FIRE
		6.3.1 Reaction of Structural Materials to Fire
	6.4 PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL MATERIALS FROM FIRE
		6.4.1 Fire-Resistive Materials
		6.4.2 Fire-Resistive Systems
	6.5 DETERMINATION OF FIRE RESISTANCE BY TESTING
		6.5.1 Steel Construction
		6.5.2 Concrete Construction
		6.5.3 Penetrations and Joints
	6.6 DETERMINATION OF FIRE RESISTANCE BY CALCULATION
		6.6.1 Steel Construction
		6.6.2 Concrete Construction
	6.7 APPLICATION OF FIRE RESISTANCE RATINGS
	REFERENCES
CHAPTER 7 WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS
	7.1 UNITS
	7.2 INTRODUCTION
		7.2.1 Wood
		7.2.2 Forestry
		7.2.3 Wood and Carbon
		7.2.4 Wood and Fire
	7.3 WOOD AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL (U.S. CUSTOMARY UNITS)
		7.3.1 Sawn Timber
		7.3.2 Panel Products
		7.3.3 Engineered Wood Products
		7.3.4 Other Materials
	7.4 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS (S.I. UNITS)
		7.4.1 Botanical Categories
		7.4.2 Physical Structure
		7.4.3 Moisture
		7.4.4 Chemical Composition
		7.4.5 Thermal Decomposition and Pyrolysis
		7.4.6 Fire-Retardant Treatments
	7.5 THERMAL PROPERTIES (S.I. UNITS)
		7.5.1 Wood and Char
		7.5.2 Other Materials
	7.6 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (U.S. CUSTOMARY UNITS)
		7.6.1 Properties at Normal Temperatures
		7.6.2 Properties at Elevated Temperatures
	7.7 REACTION TO FIRE (S.I. UNITS)
		7.7.1 Ignition
		7.7.2 Heat Release and Charring Rate
		7.7.3 Products of Combustion
		7.7.4 Surface Flame Spread
	7.8 FIRE RESISTANCE (U.S. CUSTOMARY UNITS)
		7.8.1 Exposed Wood Members
		7.8.2 Protected Wood-Frame Construction
	REFERENCES
CHAPTER 8 LIQUIDS AND CHEMICALS
	8.1 INTRODUCTION
		8.1.1 Accidents Involving Fluids Stored in Warehouses
		8.1.2 Accidents Involving Release of Fluids Contained in Vessels, Tanks, and Pipes
	8.2 PROPERTIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE IGNITION, COMBUSTION, AND FLAME SPREAD BEHAVIORS OF FLUIDS
	8.3 VAPORIZATION AND BOILING CHARACTERISTICS OF FLUIDS
	8.4 IGNITION CHARACTERISTICS OF FLUIDS
		8.4.1 Flash Points of Fluids
		8.4.2 Autoignition Temperature of Fluids
		8.4.3 Hazard Classfication of Fluids Based on Ignition Resistance
	8.5 FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF FLUIDS
	8.6 COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF FLUIDS
		8.6.1 Release Rate of Fluid Vapors in Pool Fires
		8.6.2 Heat Release Rate
		8.6.3 Release Rates of Products
	8.7 SMOKE POINT
	NOMENCLATURE
	REFERENCES
CHAPTER 9 MATERIALS IN MILITARY APPLICATIONS
	9.1 INTRODUCTION
	9.2 COMPOSITES IN MILITARY APPLICATIONS
	9.3 POLYMER COMPOSITES
		9.3.1 Conventional and Advanced Matrix Resins
		9.3.2 Fabrication Techniques
		9.3.3 Cost of Composite Systems
	9.4 FIRE THREAT
	9.5 POLYMER COMPOSITES AND FIRE
	9.6 FIRE REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATIONS FOR POLYMER COMPOSITES
		9.6.1 Infrastructure and Fire Regulations
		9.6.2 Ground Transportation and Fire Regulations
		9.6.3 Air Transportation and Fire Regulations
		9.6.4 Commercial Marine Transportation and Fire Regulations
		9.6.5 Military Use of Composites and Fire Regulations
	9.7 FIRE PERFORMANCE AND TEST METHODS FOR COMPOSITES
		9.7.1 Surface Flammability
		9.7.2 Smoke and Combustion Gas Generation
		9.7.3 Fire Growth
		9.7.4 Fire Resistance
		9.7.5 Structural Integrity Under Fire
		9.7.6 Passive Fire Protection
		9.7.7 Active Fire Protection
	REFERENCES
INDEX
                        
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