Download Human Anatomy and Figure Drawing.pdf PDF

TitleHuman Anatomy and Figure Drawing.pdf
TagsDrawing Shape Quantity Perspective (Graphical)
File Size62.5 MB
Total Pages242
Document Text Contents
Page 1

HUnAnAnATOMY
&FIGUREjmAWING

JACK n.
KRAMER

X

Page 121

LEVATORSCAPULAE
ORIGIN

RHOMBOIDMINOR
ORIGIN

TRANSVERSEPROCESS
OF 1ST AND4TH
CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

INSERTION

UPPERVERTEBRAL
BORDEROF SCAPULA

SPINES OF 7TH
CERVICAL AND
1ST THORACIC
VERTEBRAE

INTO THE UPPER
VERTEBRALBORDER
OF SCAPULA

RHOMBOID
MAJOR
ORIGIN

SPINES OF 1ST
TO 4TH
THORACIC
VERTEBRAE

INSERTION

LOWERVERTEBRAL
BORDEROF SCAPUL
BELOWRHOMBOID

INOR

TRAPEZIUS
ORIGIN

5-52

The Levator Scapulae Muscle, the Rhomboid
Minor Muscle, and the Rhomboid Major Muscle.
(Photograph by Iso Papo.)

The action of the levator scapulae is to raise the
scapula and turn the neck to the side. The rhom-
boid minor and the rhomboid major draw the sca-
pula upward and toward the vertebral column.

5-53

Diagram of the Trapezius. (Photograph by Iso
Papo.)

The action of the trapezius is complex. The upper
portion draws the head backward and/or elevates
the scapula. The middle and lower portions draw
the scapula toward the spinal column to "square"
the shoulders.

Page 122

tAST CERVI-
CAL VERTEBRA

INSERTION
INTO THE BICIPITAL
GROOVEOF THE HUMERUS

ORIGIN

FROMTHE SPINES OF
THE 6 LOWERTHORACIC,
LUMBAR, ANDSACRALVERTEBRAE,
THE CRESTOF THE ILIUM, AND
THE LOWER3 OR4 RIBS

LAST THORA
CIC vertebra'

5-54

5-56

-TRAPEZIUS

-DELTOID-

LAST LUM-
BAR VERTEBRA

5-55

The trunk, shown from the front and back, is marked by a median division running

the full length of the form in both views. In the back, this is the spinal column (see 5-9,

5-10). In the front, the median division extends from the pit of the neck to the pubic

symphysis, running through the sternum and the linea alba (dividing the rectus abdom-

inus) [5-41, 5-42]. One of the problems of foreshortening the torso can be profitably dis-
cussed in relation to this central division.

Three-quarter-view drawings of the torso are invariably given too wide a dimension

from the median line to the far contour in the drawing. When this happens, the distant
part of the form competes with the near (dominant) form and confuses the space. Then,

the overextended dimension of the far surface does not keep its position and distance

behind the nearer parts of the figure.

In a front three-quarter view, both side and front are seen on the near part of the

figure, while only part of the front is seen on the distant side of the median line [5-23,

5-28]. This should be noted and measured with a vigilant eye. The distance from midline

to far contour, carefully observed as to dimension, quite simply can set the space con-

vincingly back. The same consideration should be made for the back, comparing the
distance from the spine to far contour with the near section of the back and side of the

figure [5-10, 5-58].

The lean of the hips, when the weight of the figure has been shifted to one leg

[5-46], can be quickly traced on the back surface of the body in the dimpled triangle of

the sacrum bone set between and slightly above the buttocks. (In the skeleton [5-44], the

sacrum bone joins the two units of the pelvis, the os innominatum.)

Though they appear gradually rounded, the form of the buttocks often has a subtly

converging movement, following the converging sides of the sacral triangle [5-50]. The

location of the sacrum (visible by its dimples) is, therefore, essential. It also identifies a

broad, steplike plane opposing the direction of the mid and lower back [5-48, 5-50]. Dom-

inating the muscular form in this area is the large, strong gluteus maximus (padded

below by additional fatty tissue) [5-48].

122

Page 242

This revised edition of HumanAnatomy and Figure Drawing has been
expanded in text and image to explore more fully the relationship
between anatomy and perspective in figure drawing.

After explaining important drawing problems of volume, foreshorten-

ing, and perspective, award-winning artist Jack M. Kramer offers a
sequential analysis of all parts of the human figure, emphasizing spe-
cific human anatomy that has the greatest influence on surface form.

Each chapter contains a new set of diagrams detailing the origin and
insertion of major muscles, complete with extensively labeled engrav-

ings by the French anatomist Jean Leo Testut, available here for the

first time for use by artists. Key features of this edition include

• exercises that promote the study of anatomy in drawing from the
model

• a comprehensive appendix ofsourcesofsupply for slides, films, mus-
cle charts, skeletons, and anatomical plaster casts

• a chapter for quick reference on nomenclature and surface location
of bones, fatty tissue, and veins

Other new areas examined range from the influence of anatomy on

drapery in the costumed figure to the drawing of hair and hairstyles.
Information on planning an anatomy course for the figure drawing
teacher is another valuable addition to this revised manual.

With the second edition of HumanAnatomy and Figure Drawing, art-
ists, illustrators, students,and instructors will enlarge their vision and

their vocabulary of forms.

Jack N. Kramer is the author of the first edition of HumanAnatomy
and Figure Drawing, published by V^n hostrand Reinhold. He was a
professor of art at Boston University and was awarded the 1982 Thomas
B. Clarke Prize by the national Academy of Design.

A.VAn WOSTRAnOREINHOLDBOOK

1

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