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                            Government and Politics in India_1
Government and Politics in India
Government and Politics in India_1
                        
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Page 1

Prepare 4 Civils
Presents IGNOU’s Material



Political Science: Government and Politics in India





About Us: Prepare 4 Civils, website is a part of Sukratu Innovations, a start up by IITians. The main theme of the company

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Page 2

THE CONSEQUENCES OF
COLONIALISM

Structure

Objectives

Introduction

Defining Colonialism

Consequences of Colonialism

1.3.1 Nature and phases of the Colonial Empire
1.3.2 Impact: The First Phase-Peasantry and its Impoverishment
1.3.3 Impact: The Second Phase-De-industrialisation and its Effects

1.3.4 Impact: The Third Phase-Imperialism and Industrialisation

Let Us Sum Up

Key Words

some usehi Books and Articles

Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises

1.0 OBJECTIVES

To understand the challenges faced by India properly after Independence,
it is necessary to study the consequences of colonial rule. Understanding
the multiple and contradictory nature of consequences is itself an engrossing
exercise. But the making of modem India is still more fascinating. After
reading this unit, you should be able to:

understand how India came to become what it was at the time of
Independence; and

grasp political, social and economic processes which took place in India
after Independence.

1.1 INTRODUCTION
/'

The British built in India the largest colonial empire anywhere in the world.
But it was a different kind of colony from most others. Many of the colonies
especially in Latin America, with the exception of Dutch East Indies (now
called Indonesia), were built .with either slaves or indentured labour. Most
of the Indians that we find in Fiji (and many other places) today were
taken as indentured labour. The British built their colony in India with
peasants and freely recruited labour. There was a lsoeo white "settler
population" in India like for example in Kenya or Zimbabwe which took
control of land and became the edifice of colonial domination. While the
peasant and the labour were coerced, the larger landowners and social
notables were won over to the British side; sometimes after wars but
nonetheless most of them eventually came over to the British side. They
also created new groups to cooperate with them by granting them Zamindaries
or other land rights by displacing the old ones. India therefore was a colony
built on collaboration of "natives".

The British ruled India by drawing a lion's share of surplus out of the Indan

Page 220

1,ornl Srll'-(;o\cr11l11t-l1t

18.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND O F RURAL SELF- 111atitutio11s: WU~; I I il l111
GOVERNMENT IN INDIA

1.rh;111

Tlie pancIia!-ati raj. albcit in diffcrcnt for~ns. had a considcrabl! long histon going
back to the ancient period \vl iai the rural con~n~~~nit ics organiscd institutions to
manage tlicir o\vn affairs. The villagc ai~tononl!. \\.as considcrablc in Muglial era
and tliereforc the inipact of tlic Mugllal era on tl~c local conlnlunitics \\?as minimal.
But tlie formal stn~cti~rc of tlic rural self- government \\'as introduced in 1882
according to Ripan's Resolution. Its nlain purposc \vas to provide tllc institutional
backing of the local l~idian clitcs to the colonial administration. Contemporary local
self-government in India can be dcc~ncd be to nlorc a co~itinuation of tlie system
introduced under British rather than in prc-British era. Scvcral provincial Acts on
local bodies \\.ere passed and they provided framc\vork for man!. otlicr provi~icial
and central Icgislations. Tlic local self-govcni~iicnt in tlic rural arcas kno\\~i as tlic
villagc pancha!.at. \\-as set up in tlic viI lagcs according to tlic rcconinicndat ions of
tlic Ro!.al Coniniission of Dcccntralisation in 1907. It ainicd to dcccntralisc tlic
po\\.er and associate the pcoplc \vi tli local adniinistration through tlic institi~tions of
villagc pa~iclia!.ats. Unit of panclia!~at \\.as to be single village: only in case of \!cry
small villages i t \\.as to be sc\~cral contigi~oi~s \~iII;igcs. PancIia!~ats \Yere not to be
placed i~~ider the control of local boards but i~ndcr tlic dcpi~t!. co~iiniissio~icr. 1-lie
villages pancha!.ats c~!io!.cd ccrtai~i Judicial and administrative PO\\-crs. The) also
\\.ere entitled to a portion of land cases and special grants.

Tllc Rural self-govcnl~iicnt Bil I. 1 025. provided for a nine-nicnibcr villagc ai~tliorit!,
elected on tlic basis of restricted adult francliisc. A succcssfi~l villagc authority \\as
to be given more polvcrs. Tlic pancha!nt could includc niorc tlimi one cadastral
\~illagc. It could be cntn~stcd \\it11 certain fi~nctions si~cli as \\atcr suppl!. nicdical
relief. and sanitation. Single nic~iibcr \!illage authority could also be put in place
\\.here no recognised fornls of villagc organisat ion csistcd.

18.3 PANCHAYATI RAJ IN POST-INDEPENDENCE INDIA

In Ja11~1at-y 1957 tlic Planning Coninlissio~i appointed tlic Co~nniittcc 011 plan Pro.iccts
headed b!. Baluant Rai G. Mchta. Nanicd aficr its cliainiian. tlic Committcc \\as
luiown as Mchta Committcc. Tlic Mclita Co~iinlittcc aimed to:

i ) Give report on tllc possible linkages bct\vccn \illage pnncha\.ats and liiglicr
level popi~lar organisations for ctticicotl!, implcmcnting Communit!~ Projccts and
National Estcnsio~l scn.icc.

ii) To determine in advance tlic stages of reorganisation of district administration:
it \vould hclp tlic dc~iiocratic bodics to take over the cntirc general administration
and development of tlic districts. or sub-division.

Tlie Melita Co~ii~iiittcc conducted a nation\vidc survc!. and observed that tllc
Conuiiunity Projccts and tlic National Estcnsion Scrviccs did not involve pcoplc.
They hnctioncd in an ad lioc nia~~ncr. To o\icrcomc this lacuna the Mcllta Committcc
rcconiniendcd tlic cstabl islinic~it of rcprcscntativc and dc~nocratic institi~tions in tllc
villages - tlic villagc pancIia!.ats. Tlic Mchta Coniniittec Rcport also rcconl~ncndcd
tlie village pancha!.ats sllould be vcstcd \\.it11 adequate po\vcrs and assigned
appropriate finances. The Mchta Coni~nittcc Rcport tlli~s lligllliglltcd tllc nccd to
give financial tcetli of tlic rural i~istiti~tions \\-a!. back in 1957 as a nlcans to cvokc
local interests, and initiati\~cs albcit froni tllc point of \lic\v of dcvclopmcnt. Ho\\-ever.
i t cnvisagcd tllcm as agents of tllc state g~\~crnmcnt in i~nplc~~ic~lt i~ig special
dcvclopnlcntal schcmcs. Such an cnlpliasis clcarl! i~ndcrlind tlic overriding and
i~ndcrstandable collccrn \vitll implcmcntation of tlic state-dc\ciscd and state-sponsored
scllcnic for local dc\~clopmcnt. Tlic emphasis on tlic role of local bodics as institi~tions
of local dcmocrac!. and self-go\~cmancc \vas rather nii~tcd despite rcc01i11iie1idatio1is

Page 221

to transfer certain vital admin~strati\lc and other fi~~ictioris to them. The Mchta
Co~ii~iiittcc Rcport. lioc\c\cr. cautioned against tlic pitfall o f csccssivc govcrliliic~it
co~itrol \vliilc empliasising tlic guiding role. Tlic latter. lio\\cvcr. liad all possibilities
o f dcgcncrating into petty intcrfcrcncc.

Tlic Mclita Co~ii~ii ittcc Rcport suggested that furictioris of local bodics should co\cr
tlic dc\clopmcnt o f agriculture in all its aspects - tlic improvcmcnt o f cattle arid
local industries. public licaltli. \\elfarc nark. administration ot' priman scliools and
collcctio~i and maintaiancc o f statistics and act as a11 agent o f state go\enimcnt in
cuccuting special sclicmcs o f dc\~clopmcnt c~itrustcd to it.

To prcscnic tlic relative autonomy o f tlic village co~ilniu~iitics tlic hlchta Co~iiriiittcc
Rcport suggcstcd that tlic rclatio~isliip bct\\~cai tlic state and tlic Pa~iclia!ati R+i
bodics 'must not be cra~iipcd b!. too ~ i i i ~ c l i co~itrol by go\~crIiiiiclit and govcrlimcnt
agencies. It must Iiavc tlic po\\.cr to ~i iakc ~iiistakcs and to lcar~i b! ~ i i ak i~ i g ~iiistakcs.
but it ~ i i i ~ s t also receive gi~ida~icc \\.Iiicli \\.ill liclp it to avoid riiaki~ig mistakes'. Tlic
structures that cvolvcd. lio\\.cvcr. \\.ere those \vliicli cliictl!. pcrfor~iicd dc\:clopmcnt
fi~nctions.

Oiic scliool o f thought argues tliat Panclia\.at Rqi lias not onl! failed to contribute
~i iucl i to n ~ r a l dcvclopmcnt. but on the contran. lias also lii~idcrcd it. Tlicsc institutions
arc pri~iiaril\. c~igagcd in po\\.cr politics and distribution o f dc\~clop~iicntal patronage.
They lia\lc also disturbed tlic \,illage Iiar~iiony through factional contlicts. On tlic
otlicr halid. so~iic academics fccl that tlicrc is no i~i l icrc~i t problaii and rather tlic
failures o f tlic Panclia>.at Rqi arc because of the lack of tinanccs. lack o f co-
operatio11 from go\,cni~iic~it dcpartmcnts. half-licartcd policies and dcfcctiic stnlcturc
crcatcd tbr tlic i~ i ip lc~i ic~i tat io~i .

18.4 THE 73RD CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT ACT,
1992

As !rou lia\ic studied ill scctio~i 18.3. tile introduction o f Pancha!.at Raj Institutions
follo\vcd the i~uplcmcntation o f tlic Community Dcvclop~iic~it and National Estc~isio~i
Scrviccs programmes. Bascd ~ i ia i~ i l !~ on tlic Ga~idl i ia~i philosopli!. tlic Commulut!
Dcvclop~iic~it Progra~iimc ai~iicd at acliicving tlic all round dc\clopmc~it o f n ~ r a l
India. The programme crcatcd a large numbcr o f the govcriiriiclit fi~nctionarics likc
tlic Block Dcvclop~iic~it Officers (BDOs) and Village Lc\,cl Workcrs (VLWs). But
tlic results o f tlic Com~i iun i t~~ Dc\~cIopmait Programmcs \\ere far from satisfacton..

Bal\\.ant Rai Mcl i ta Conimittcc r cco~ i i ~ i i c~ i dcd mcasurcs for '-democratic
dcccntralisation'' in order to mcct the dcficicnc!. o f tlic Com~iiunit>. Dc\,clopmcnt
Programmcs and Estcnsion Scrviccs Programmcs. I t suggcstcd tliat tile PO\\-cr for
dcvclop~iic~it slioi~ld be located at tlic intcr~iicdiatc Ic\~cl- tlic PancIia!.at Samiti. The
Mclita report cn\~isioncd crcation o f links bct\\.cai tlic pancIia).at sariiitics and
village Ic\lcl Pancha!.ats tlirough tlic services o f the Villagc Lcilcl Workcrs (VLWs)
or Gram sc\\faks. Tlic Mclita Co~li~i i i t tcc Rcport bcca~iic the basis of cstc~isio~i o f
tlic PRls all over India. But tlic PRls as established b!. Mclita Co~iiniittcc Rcport.
sutfcrcd fro111 the factio~ialis~n \vitliin i t s mcmbcrs: feud in tlic villages and corruption.
Tlic clcctio~is to tlic PRls \Yere not licld for long. B\. scco~id lialf o f tlic 1970 tlic
\i~~cfficicncy o f the PRls liad rcaclicd its zenith.

Efforts to rcvitalisc tlic PRls \\ere riiadc again in 1970s: tlic Cclitral Govcr~imcnt
Icd b!. 5; Ja::,ta Part). appointed Asliok Mclita Co~ii~i i i t tcc to assess tlic fi~nctioning
o f tlic PRls and rcco~li~iicndcd mcasurcs for tlicir impro\ cmcnt. Tl~ougli Asliok

*?vc liiorc Mclita Co~iianittcc likc the Bal\\ant Rai Mclita Committee Rcport b,
c~iipliasis to tlic d c l i \ l c ~ ~ i icc l ia~ i is~ i i than to dcvclopmait. it niadc soiiic lie\\
suggestions. Tlicsc includcd need to allo\v tlic political parties to contest panclia!al

Page 439

Context of Indian Stat9 32.6 SOME USEFUL BOOKS

Desai, A.R., Violation of Democratic Rights in India, Vol.1, Popular
Prakashan, Bombay, 1986.

Repression and Resistance, Popular Prakashan, Bombay, 1986.

Kothari Rajni, Politics and the People: In Search of Humane India,
Volume 11, Ajanta Publications, Delhi, 1989 (Chapter 22: 'The State, the
People, the Intellectuals' and Chapter 26: ' 1984: Rise of the Terrorist State').

Singh, Randhir, 'Terrorism, State Terrorism and Democr ic Rights', in 4 Randhir Singh, Five Lectures in Marxist Mode, Ajanta, De hi, 1993.
32.7 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

EXERCISES

Check Your Progress Exercise I

1) Politics in the first two decades immediately following independence as
it was marked by mutual trust between people.

2) Increasing role of crime in politics.

Check Your Progress Exercise 2

1) Article 22 provides for preventive detension or detension without tribal
even in times of peace; Articles 352-36 provides for suspension of
fimdamental rights during emergency.

2) The former refers to the'aacts of terror by political groups outside the
countty where they are primarily active. The latter meanings support or
encouragement by the state to acts of terrorism.

3) Groups which fight against the violation of the rights of the people.

Page 440

Prepare 4 Civils
Presents IGNOU’s Material



Political Science: Government and Politics in India





About Us: Prepare 4 Civils, website is a part of Sukratu Innovations, a start up by IITians. The main theme of the company

is to develop new web services which will help people. Prepare 4 Civils is an online social networking platform intended for

the welfare of people who are preparing for Civil services examinations. The whole website was built on open-source

platform Wordpress.



Contact Details:

Website: http://www.prep4civils.com/ Email: [email protected]











Disclaimer and Terms of Use: By following Creative Common License, for the welfare of large student body we are merging

all the pdf files provided by IGNOU’s course material website egyankosh and redistributing the files by giving proper credit

to IGNOU and the redistribution is based on the norms of Creative Common License. We are not commercially distributing

the files. People who are downloading these files should not be engaged in any sort of sales or commercial distribution of

these files. They can redistribute these copies freely by giving proper credit to the original author, IGNOU

(http://egyankosh.ac.in/) and “Prepare 4 Civils” (http://www.prep4civils.com/) by providing proper hyperlinks of the

websites. Any sort of clichés can be addressed at [email protected] and proper action will be taken.



http://www.prep4civils.com/
http://www.prep4civils.com/
mailto:[email protected]
http://egyankosh.ac.in/
http://www.prep4civils.com/
mailto:[email protected]

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