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TagsJustification (Theology) Paul The Apostle Epistle To The Romans Sola Fide Salvation
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Table of Contents
                            Front Cover
Front Slip
Back Slip
Back Cover
Copyright Details
Table of Contents
	General Bibliography
	Commentaries on the Pauline epistles consulted
		1 and 2 Corinthians
		Colossians and Philemon:
		1 and 2 Thessalonians:
		§1 Prolegomena to a theology of Paul
			§1.1 Why a theology of Paul?
			§1.2 What is a "theology of Paul"?
			§1.3 Can a theology of Paul be written?
			§1.4 How to write a theology of Paul?
			§1.5 Toward a theology of Paul
	God and Humankind
		§2 God
			§2.1 God as axiom
			§2.2 God as one
			§2.3 Other gods?
			§2.4 God and the cosmos
			§2.5 The God of Israel
			§2.6 God in experience
			§2.7 Conclusion
		§3 Humankind
			§3.1 Anthropological presuppositions
			§3.2 Soma
			§3.3 Sarx
			§3.4 Soma and sarx
			§3.5 Nous and kardia
			§3.6 Psyche and pneuma
			§3.7 Summary
	Humankind under Indictment
		§4 Adam
			§4.1 The dark side of humanity
			§4.2 Adam in Jewish scripture
			§4.3 Adam in post-biblical Jewish tradition
			§4.4-9 Adam in Paul's theology
			§4.4 Romans 1.18-32
			§4.5 Romans 3.23
			§4.6 Romans 5.12-21
			§4.7 Romans 7.7-13
			§4.8 Romans 8.19-22
			§4.9 Summary
		§5 Sin and death
			§5.1 The power of evil
			§5.2 The heavenly powers
			§5.3 Sin
			§5.4 The effects of sin — misdirected religion
			§5.5 The effects of sin — self-indulgence
			§5.6 The effects of sin — sins
			§5.7 Death
			§5.8 In sum
		§6 The law
			§6.1 Sin, death, and the law
			§6.2 Torah, nomos, and ho nomos
			§6.3 The measure of God's requirement and judgment
			§6.4 Israel under the law
			§6.5 A relationship whose time is past
			§6.6 A law for life? — or death?
			§6.7 Is the law sin?
			§6.8 Conclusions
	The Gospel of Jesus Christ
		§7 Gospel
			§7.1 Euangelion
			§7.2 "In accordance with the scriptures"
			§7.3 Kerygmatic and confessional formulae
			§7.4 The apocalypse of Jesus Christ
			§7.5 The eschatologkal "now"
		§8 Jesus the man
			§8.1 How much did Paul know or care about the life of Jesus?
			§8.2 Some a priori considerations
			§8.3 Echoes of Jesus tradition in Paul
			§8.4 Jesus
			§8.5 Messiah
			§8.6 Adam
			§8.7 The incarnate Son?
			§8.8 Conclusion
		§9 Christ crucified
			§9.1 As one died
			§9.2 A sacrifice for sins
			§9.3 Paul's theology of atoning sacrifice
			§9.4 The beloved Son
			§9.5 The curse of the law
			§9.6 Redemption
			§9.7 Reconciliation
			§9.8 Conquest of the powers
			§9.9 Conclusions
		§10 The risen Lord
			§10.1 The resurrection of the crucified
			§10.2 The last Adam
			§10.3 Son of God in power
			§10.4 The Lord
			§10.5 Jesus as God?
			§10.6 The life-giving Spirit
			§10.7 Conclusions
		§11 The préexistent one
			§11.1 Divine Wisdom
			§11.2 Jesus as Wisdom
			§11.3 Other possible Wisdom passages
			§11.4 Phil. 2.6-11
			§11.5 Other possible préexistent Adam passages
			§11.6 Conclusions
		§12 Until he comes
			§12.1 The coming (parousia) of Christ
			§12.2 The parousia hope in the Thessalonian letters
			§12.3 Christ's role in the end events in the later letters
			§12.4 The delay of the parousia
			§12.5 Conclusions
	The Beginning of Salvation
		§13 The crucial transition
			§13.1 A new epoch
			13.2 Grace as event
			§13.3 The new beginning
			§13.4 Metaphors of salvation
		§14 Justification by faith
			§14.1 A new perspective on Paul
			§14.2 The righteousness of God
			§14.3 The impact of Paul's conversion
			§14.4 Works of the law in Judaism
			§14.5 Not of works
			§14.6 Self-achieved righteousness?
			§14.7 By faith alone
			§14.8 Faith in Christ
			§14.9 The blessings of Justification
		§15 Participation in Christ
			§15.1 Christ mysticism
			§15.2 In Christ, in the Lord
			§15.3 With Christ
			§15.4 Complementary formulations
			§15.5 The corporate Christ
			§15.6 The consequences of participation in Christ
		§16 The gift of the Spirit
			§16.1 The third aspect
			§16.2 The eschatological Spirit
			§16.3 Receiving the Spirit
			§16.4 The experience of the Spirit
			§16.5 The blessings of the Spirit
			§16.6 Conclusion
		§17 Baptism
			§17.1 The traditional view
			§17.2 Exegetical issues
			§17.3 An ordo salutis?
			§17.4 Infant baptism
	The Process of Salvation
		§18 The eschatological tension
			§18.1 Between the times
			§18.2 Already-not yet
			§18.3 The divided "I"
			§18.4 Flesh and Spirit
			§18.5 Sharing Christ's sufferings
			§18.6 The process completed
			§18.7 Conclusions and corollaries
		§19 Israel (Romans 9-11)
			§19.1 Has God's word failed (9.1-5)?
			§19.2 Who is Israel (9.6)?
			§19.3 The character of Israel's election (9.7-29)
			§19.4 Israel's misunderstanding of its call (9.30-10.21)
			§19.5 Israel not abandoned (11.1-24)
			§19.6 All Israel shall be saved (11.25-36)
			§19.7 The final goal (15.7-13)
			§19.8 Conclusions
	The Church
		§20 The body of Christ
			§20.1 Redefining corporate identity
			§20.2 The church of God
			§20.3 Community without cult
			§20.4 The body of Christ
			§20.5 Charismatic community
			§20.6 The shared experience of the Spirit
			§20.7 An unrealistic vision?
		§21 Ministry and authority
			§21.1 Charism and office
			§21.2 Paul's apostolic authority
			§21.3 The other regular ministries
			§21.4 The ministry and authority of women
			§21.5 The authority of the congregation
			§21.6 Discerning the spirits
			§21.7 Conclusion
		§22 The Lord's Supper
			§22.1 The problem in assessing Paul's theology of the Lord's Supper
			§22.2 Influence from other religions?
			§22.3 The origin of the sacrament
			§22.4 The situation in Corinth
			§22.5 Paul's theology of the Lord's Supper: spiritual food
			§22.6 Paul's theology of the Lord's Supper: sharing in the one body
			§22.7 Paul's theology of the Lord's Supper: christology
	How Should Believers Live?
		§23 Motivating principles
			§23.1 Indicative and imperative
			§23.2 Once more, the law
			§23.3 Faith and "the law of faith"
			§23.4 Spirit and "the law of the Spirit"
			§23.5 Christ and "the law of Christ"
			§23.6 Liberty and love
			§23.7 Traditional wisdom
			§23.8 Conclusions
		§24 Ethics in practice
			§24.1 The social context
			§24.2 Living within a hostile world — Rom. 12.9-13.14
			§24.3 Living with fundamental disagreements — Rom. 14.1-15.6
			§24.4 Living between two worlds: sexual conduct (1 Corinthians 5-6)
			§24.5 Living between two worlds: marriage and divorce(1 Corinthians 7)
			§24.6 Living between two worlds: slavery (1 Cor. 7.20-23)
			§24.7 Living between two worlds: social relations(1 Corinthians 8-10)
			§24.8 The collection
			§24.9 Conclusion
		§25 Postlegomena to a theology of Paul
			§25.1 Paul's theology as dialogue
			§25.2 The stable foundation of Paul's theology
			§25.3 The fulcrum point of Paul's theology
			§25.4 Centre and development
			§25.5 Innovative and lasting features
Index of Subjects
Index of Modem Authors
Index of Scripture and Other Ancient Writings
Document Text Contents
Page 1

J A M E S D . G . D U N N

The Theology of

the Apostle

Page 2

TH E A P O S T L E P A U L was the first and greatest Christian theologian. His profound
theological reflection, his sensitive grappling with
all too real human problems, and his outspoken
argument and pastoral insight have long fascinated
readers of the New Testament. Furthermore, the
life and writings of Paul have been the focus of
considerable scholarly study and debate, especially
in recent years. In this major new work, respected
New Testament scholar James D. G. Dunn brings
together more than two decades of vigorous and
creative labor on Paul into an integrated, full-scale
study of Paul's thought.

Using Paul's letter to the Romans as the foundation
for constructing a fuller exposition of Paul's whole
theology, Dunn's thematic treatment clearly
describes Paul's teaching on such topics as God,
humankind, sin, Christology, salvation, the church,
and the nature of the Christian life. In the process
Dunn engages, in a concise way, with what other
important scholars have said regarding each area of
inquiry. His work represents a major contribution
to the ongoing discussion regarding what Paul's
theology is and what its continuing relevance is to
the study and practice of religion and theology.

Especially outstanding for its transcendence of
denominational boundaries and traditional labels,
The Theology oj Paul the Apostle is also laudable for the
warmth of its concern for pastoral and spiritual
issues, for its taking up present-day concerns in
relation to Paul's thinking, and for its balanced
and practical descriptions of the options within
innumerable issues in the modern study of Paul.
Courses on Paul's thinking could ask for no better
main text, and independent readers could ask for
no book on Paul boasting greater depth, breadth,
and readability.

Page 423

T H E B E G I N N I N G O F S A L V A T I O N §14-8

theme, as announced in 1.16-17 — " . . . the power of God for salvation to
all who believe . . . the righteousness of God from faith to faith, as it is written,
'the righteous from faith shall l i v e . ' " Here again we note the repeated em­
phasis onpistis — no less than fourpistis/pisteuo references . 2 0 4 And here again
we can probably assume that in resuming the theme in 3.22 Paul repeats the
emphasis — "the righteousness of God through faith [now specified as faith
in Jesus Christ] to all who b e l i e v e . " 2 0 5 The repetition also gives opportunity
to reintroduce the thematic "a l l " : "through faith . . . to all who b e l i e v e . " 2 0 6

It is equally notable that as the pistis theme is developed from 3.27
there is no real room for doubt that it refers all the time and without exception
to human bel ieving. 2 0 7 "The law of faith" (3.27) is explained in terms of the
individual "being justified by faith apart from works of the l aw" (3.28), a
justifying whose coming to effect can be expressed equally as "from faith"
or "through faith" (3.30-31). And then in 4.3-22 this pistis is explained, as
we have seen, by exposition of Abraham's "believing" (4.3), his pistis (4.9,
11-12). The interchange of verb and noun simply reinforces the po in t . 2 0 8

We need not labour the point further. The beguiling attractiveness of
the "faith of Christ" reading depends too much either on an atomistic study
of the key texts in isolation from their con tex t s 2 0 9 or on the assumption of an

204. To make his case Hays argues that Hab 2.4 is a messianic prophecy and
prefigures the faith of God's Son (Faith 150-57; " 'The Righteous One' as Eschatological
Deliverer: A Case Study in Paul's Apocalyptic Hermeneutic," in J. Marcus and M. L.
Soards, eds., Apocalyptic and the New Testament (§12 n. 1) 191-215; "PISTIS" 42-44);
followed by D. A. Campbell, "Romans 1.17 — A Crux Interpretum for the Pistis Christou
Debate," JBL 113 (1994) 265-85; Stowers, Rereading 200; Wallis, Faith 81-82. Earlier
support is indicated by Campbell 281 n. 47.

205. Hays's objection that since "Romans 3 is a defense of God's justice," "the
objective genitive interpretation of pistis Iesou Christou becomes virtually unintelligible"
("PISTIS "46) seems to miss the fundamental point for Paul that faith is the only appropriate
human correlate to God's gracious righteousness (see above §14.7).

206. Hardly "a peculiar redundancy" then (pace Hays, "PISTIS"46); see also my

207. A reference to Christ's faithfulness would rather invite a parallel with
Abraham's faithfulness in offering Isaac (the normal exposition of the time); but Paul's
exposition seems to run counter to that (see above §14.7; and "PISTIS CHRISTOU"'75-77).
Contrast again Wallis's rather tortuous unpacking of "faith" in 3.27-31 as "the salvific
provision of God established through the faith of Christ" (Faith 88-90).

208. Pisteud — 4.3, 5, 11, 17, 18, 24; pistis — 4.5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16 (twice),
19, 20. Similarly 10.4, 6, 9-10 (despite Stowers, Rereading 310-11).

209. The only one of the seven texts for which such an atomistic exegesis could
be justified is Phil. 3.9. But in the light of the above discussion it is more obviously read
as a further variation on Paul's repeated emphasis on faith, in this case as the radical
opposite to trust in the flesh (see Reumann, Righteousness 62 n. 72). A possible allusion
to "Christ's faith" simply raises the same question: what "faith of Christ" is this? To which


Page 424

§149 J U S T I F I C A T I O N B Y F A I T H

underlying story of Christ's faith for which the chief evidence is the disputed
texts themselves. But when these texts are read within the flow of Paul's
argument in Galatians and Romans, it is hard to hear anything as intended by
Paul beyond his affirmation of the central importance of "faith," now as the
appropriate gospel response of "faith in Christ ." 2 1 0

Whatever the outcome of this particular debate, however, it should not
be allowed to obscure two points which were clearly central for Paul. First,
that the gospel centres on Christ's death and resurrection as the definitive
expression of God's righteousness, by which both sins and the power of sin
have been once and for all dealt with. Second, that the means by which God's
saving righteousness can now be received (should we add, most fully and
effectively?) is by believing in this Christ.

§14.9 The blessings of Justification

All that remains is to highlight the various consequences for believers which
Paul explicitly attaches or attributes to justification. So to do is not to imply
that they should be linked solely to the imagery of justification, or that they
should be apportioned to justification in any sort of scholastic analysis or
tabulation. It is simply to observe that Paul associates several other features
of his gospel with justification in particular.

a) It follows at once from the whole thrust of Paul's exposition of the
theme in Rom. 1.16-4.25 that justification means acceptance by God, the God
who justifies the ungodly who trust as Abraham trusted (4.5). This is no abuse
of legal process or a legal fiction, as talk of justifying the ungodly (Rom. 4.5)
could imply. 2 1 1 For here is where the earlier clarification and the distinction
between Greek and Hebrew concepts of "righteousness" (§14.2) becomes
relevant again. In fact, at this point the law court metaphor simply breaks
down. For in the law court, strictly speaking, there is no place for forgiveness;
the due processes of the law must take their course. But where the issue is

the tradition available to Paul's readers gives no clear answer (see also V. Koperski, "The
Meaning of pistis Christou in Philippians 3.9," Louvain Studies 18 [1993] 198-216).
Reflection on the "faith" of Jesus is a wholly appropriate interest of contemporary theology
(see, e.g., O'Collins, Christology [§10 n. 1] 250-68), but it can hardly be said to be a
preoccupation in the earliest Jesus tradition. Insofar as Paul had such a theme in mind, his
chosen term was "obedience" (Rom. 5.19; Phil. 2.8). See further my "PISTISCHRISTOU"

210. It is precisely this central importance of faith, both in receiving the gospel
and in daily living (see below §23.3), which prevents me from offering here a "both-and"
compromise (as, e.g., Witherington, Narrative 270).

211. Bornkamm, Paul 138, raises the question of "legal fiction," an "as if."


Page 846


17.345-48 417n.21
18.116-19 417n.23
20.44 136n.43, 643n.88
20.90 250n.81
20.200-201 34911.58

Contra Apionem
1.37-42 170n.41
2.146 664n,165
2.148 34
2.167 32
2.190-91 32
2.273-75 122n.l02
2.282 144n.84, 682n.48

Jewish War
1.108-9 349n.58
2.118 611n.57
2.140 676n.l7
2.162 349n.58
2.409 503n.20
4.137 451n.49
7.260 679n.35



Juvenal, Satires
14.96 144n.84,682n.48
14.97 34
14.105-6 682n.48

Livy, Historia
2.32 550n.l03

Marcus Aurelius,
4.23 267n.4

Martial, Epigrams
3.60 609n.45
4.85 609n.45

De Abrahamo
135-37 122n.l02
172 224n.93
192 375n.l67

De Aeternitate Mundi
107 108

De Cherubim
25 213n.25
125-26 39n.52, 267n.4
125-27 270

De Confusione
6-8 86n.28
136 204n. l l2
171 106n.l9

De Congressu
Eruditionis Grana
70 136n.43,643n.88
86-87 153n.l26

De Decalogo
65 31
142 87n.30
150 87n.30
153 87n,30
158 503n.20
167 700n.l31
173 87n.30

Quod Deterius Potiori
Insidiari Soleat
54 269n.l7

De Ebrietate
30-31 269n.l5

De Fuga et Inventione
4 170n.39
47 32n . l6
100-101 213n.25
109 269n . l7
112 269n . l9
212 35n.33

De Gigantibus
22-27 648n . l l l
47 204n . l l2

Quis Rerum
Divinarum Heres
23 26911.19
56-57 87

106 170n.39
159 170n.39
166 213n.25
188 269n.l9
199 269n.l7
294-95 87n.30

Quod Deus
lmmutabilis Sit
104-8 321n.l9

Legum Allegoriae
1.31 289
1.31-32 87
1.43 269n.l4
1.46 137n.50
1.48 249n.78
1.53 249n.78
1.88 249n.78
1.90 249n.78
1.93 137n.50
1.95-96 249n.78
2.1 249n.78
2.47 249n,78
2.51-53 249n.78
2.71 249n.78
2.78 249n.78
2.86 279n.58
2.88 249n.78
2.94 249n.78
2.101 24911.78
2.106 249n.78
3.4 204n. l l2
3.10 4011.59

De Migratione
130 137n.50

De Vita Mosis
1.278 356
2.21 144n.84,

2.84 170n.38
2.95 213n.25
2.97 213n.25
2.133 269n.l9
2.238 204n. l l2
2.271 148n.l06


Page 847


De Vita Mosis (cont'd) De Somnis Plato
2.280 148n.l06 1.62-64 269n.l6 Apologia
2.290 252n.95 1.122-23 122n.l03 38a 53

De Mutatione 1.141-43 140n.67 Laws
Nominum 1.143 140n.64 6.26b-c 122n.l04
236-37 517n.86 1.238 35n.33

2.9 122n.l03 Protagoras
De Opificio Mundi

2.180 517n.86 343b 53
16_44 39n.54

2.180 517n.86

81 40n.59 De Specialibus Legibus Republic

134 289n.l07 1.35 39n.57 5.13 122n.l04

136-37 545 1.198 220n.74
143 137n.50 1.201 544n.62 Pliny, Epistles
151-52 87 1.209 106n.l9 2.6 609n.45
165-66 87 1.214 170n.39 10.97.7 260n.l42

De Plantatione 1.221 621n.98
42 86n.24 1.277 544n.62 Plutarch, Moralia

1.301 517n.86 142E 591n.l29
De Posteritate Caini

1.301 517n.86
525AB 121n.93

84-85 517n.86, 1.305 422n.54,
525AB 121n.93

640n.75 643n.89 640n.75
2.63 679n.35 Pseudo-Aristotle, De

De Praemiis et Poenis 2.167 503n.20 Mundo
62 87n.30 2.192 40n,60 6 39n.52,267n.4
79 136n.43,643n.88

3.37-42 122n.l02
80 517n.86

3.100 104n.ll Pseudo-Callisthenes

Quod Omnis Probus 3.205-6 681n.45 1.22.4 591n.l29
Liber Sit 4.84-85 87n.30
68 517n.86 4.187 40n.59 Quintilian, Institutes
114 227n. l l5 8.6.1 283n.75

Quaestiones et
Solutiones in Genesin

Legatio ad Gaium
Quaestiones et
Solutiones in Genesin

361 682n.47 Seneca, Epistles

1.32 86n.28 De Virtutibus 47 700n.l31

1.40 87 116 679n.35 65.8 39n.52,267n.4
1.51 87 182 664n.l65 94.1 667n.l84
4.97 269n.l5 183 517n.86

Quaestiones et 203^1 86n.24 Tacitus

Solutiones in Exodum 205 87 Annals

2.118 269n.l9 De Vita Contemplativa
13 675n.9

De Sacrificiis Abelis et 3 108 Historiae
Caini 37 682n.46 5.5.4 36
8-10 252n.95
27 664n.l65 Pindar, Pythiam Virgil, Eclogues
32 663n.l64 2.72 630n.21 4.50-52 100n.97


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