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Table of Contents
	Earl Hines: In Appreciation
	Winnowed Ways: A Conversation with Bob Wilber
	Billie Holiday: Anatomy of a Tragedy
	Brookmeyer, Mulligan, and the Concert Jazz Band
	Outspoken Trumpeter
	Dial Days: A Conversation with Ross Russell
	John Lewis: Spontaneous Restraint
	Recording with Bags
	Steve Kuhn, Piano
	Rehearsing with the Jimmy Giuffre 3
	Giuffre/Brookmeyer Reunion
	A Night at the Five Spot
	Ornette Coleman: The Musician and the Music
	Three Men on a Bass
		I: Scott LaFaro
		II: Steve Swallow
		III: Gary Peacock
	Pharoah's Tale
	Boyhood Memories
	The Animule Ball
	Discourse on Jazz
	Creepy Feeling
	Georgia Skin Game
	The Pearls
	Mamie's Blues
	The Murder Ballad . . .
	Jack the Bear
	Original Jelly Roll Blues . . .
	Buddy Bolden's Legend
	The Storyville Story
	First Recordings: Quintet of the Hot Club of France
	Dinah Washington: "The Queen,"
	The Weary Blues and Other Poems Read by Langston Hughes
	Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers with Thelonious Monk
	Solo Monk
	The Art of John Coltrane
	National Jazz Ensemble
	Art Pepper: "Gettin' Together"
	Ornette Coleman's Crisis
	Vintage Dolphy
	Monk Unique
	Collected Bird
	Herbie Nichols Introspect
	Silver Explorations
	Three on Cannonball
	Composers' Dilemmas
	The MJQ in Europe
	Poetry from the Delta
	Double Concert
	Concert Treasures
	Monk and Coltrane
	Jazz Clubs Come and Go
	The Ellington Era
	Four Pianists: Four Minority Views
		I: Oscar Peterson
		II: Martial Solal
		III: George Shearing
		IV: Ahmad Jamal
	Celebrating a Centennial
	Concert with High Moments
	Spoofs in a Set of Two
	Some Kind of Advance Guard
	Recognition, Prestige, and Respect: They're Academic Questions
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Jazz Changes

Page 165

152 Jelly Roll at the Library of Congress

arately (or in parallel pairs) and building in a "classic" form. This
practice is so common among post-ragtime styles, in James P.
Johnson, in Willie "The Lion" Smith, in their "pupil" Waller (all
of whom, I believe, would have used pretty much the same style
and approach as they did whether or not there had been any New
Orleans jazz) that one can only wonder at its origin. Playing on
chord sequences alone is indigenous to blues, altering a line in
performance is characteristic of much music, however uniquely
beautiful and exciting it may be in American Negro folk music.
On the other hand, these "classic" sets of melodic variations
which approach choruses separately, which build, contrast,
echo, parallel—where did this approach come from? Any bar-
room pianist makes embellishments of course (sometimes
through sheer ignorance) but what is the genesis of these ordered
transformations of melody from within its structure which in-
volved so much melodic-rhythmic invention? We can be sure of
one thing: it takes a musical sensibility to be able to make them
well, whether one arrives at the procedure himself or adopts it
from a "source"; and in jazz, Morton could do it surpassingly and

Pep has two themes. The first is stated as an harmonic
sequence and its basic melodic material can be reduced to a two-
bar phrase. (Lest anyone think that Morton could not use long
lines, let him remember Shreveport Stomp, or let him catch the
hint in the second theme in Pep.) It uses the kind of harmonies
usually called "haunting," again quite "advanced" for their day.
Morton puts it through five two-handed variations. Following an
interlude, he plays three choruses on his second theme, again
showing the rhythmic and architectonic resources of his
playing—including the way that his key phrases and melodic
segments blend and develop without choppiness. This perfor-
mance of Pep is superior to the original record in several respects,
not the least of which is that it swings more.

Whatever its merits and defects, Morton's playing and casual
scatting of four choruses on Fats Waller's Ain't Misbehaviri make
an interesting comparison (rhythmic as well as melodic) to any of
Waller's own versions, and a comment on our discussion above.

Page 166

The Pearls 153

Chorus four begins with a fine counter-melody, and notice the
motif of thirty-second note runs he introduces in the second. One
immediately thinks of Parker, then of Hines and Tatum. And in
Morton's playing, the device has a clear reference to his "Spanish

Morton's tribute in Bert Williams to the great comedian is
apparently nominal because we know that when he wrote the
tune in his early California days (1917-22), he called it The
Pacific Rag. It has three themes in the basic ABAC form, here
used AABBACCC, and the kind of lightly swinging, loose
rhythm that clearly gives the "rag" in the original title the lie if we
took it literally. The variations on B again show what interesting
use Morton can make of his most casual, almost incidental second
themes. The third strain has an echo-like structure of which
Morton takes knowing advantage.

Jungle Blues is a deliberately archaic, harmonically "primitive"
blues. Morton played it here as a part of his criticism of Duke
Ellington, something about Ellington playing "jungle music" and
his having made that kind of music before him. (Morton's
criticism of Ellington seems to miss the point as much as
Ellington's often-quoted attack on Morton.) It may sound like a
kind of improvisation on blues chords, but it is not; the basic
sequence and development were compositionally pre-set. I think
one of its nicest effects is the way Morton will keep one kind of
rhythm going to the brink of monotony and then shift his treble to
a counter-rhythm—the kind of relieving contrast wherein Mor-
ton's instincts seldom failed him.

For any jazzman or theorist confronted with the recurrent
problems of developing structure and integrated rhythmic vari-
ety, Morton's music can stand, I believe, as a precedent and
example. At any rate, it can be a source of emotional instruction
and delight to us all.

Page 329

316 Index

Sweet Lorraine, 4
Sweet and Lovely, 203, 204
Sweet Peter, 166-67
Swingtime in the Rockies, 5
Syeeda's Song Flute, 209
Symphony in Black, 272

Take It Easy, 5, 270
Take 3 (coffee house), 114, 120
Tate, Buddy, 112
Tatum, Art, 71, 115, 153, 260, 275,

300, 301
Taylor, Billy, 150n, 255
Taylor, Cecil, 93, 277
Taylor, Sam "the Man," 195
Tchaikovsky, Peter Ilyitch, 297
Tea for Two, 229
Teagarden,Jack, 6
Tempo Music Shop, 40, 42
Termini, Iggy, 92—94
Termini, Joe, 92-94
Terry, Clark, 36, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66,

68, 87
Thad Jones-Mel Lewis Orchestra, 26,

"Thelonious Himself," 256
Thelonious Monk Quartet, 94
"Thelonious Monk with John Coltrane,"

Them There Eyes, 19
These Foolish Things, 24, 204
They All Played Ragtime, 164, 173
This Here, 240
This Is Always, 46, 48
"This Is Our Music," 118
This Is the Way, 254
Thomas, Dylan, 193
Thompson, Kay C., 148
Thompson, Lucky, 42
Thomson, Virgil, 98, 220
Thorne, Francis, 56
Thornton, Argonne, 233
Three Little Feelings, 57-58, 251
Three Little Words, 250
Thriving from a Riff, 232
Tiger Rag, 129, 133, 166, 178, 185, 266

Timmons, Bobby, 108
Tjader, Cal, 289
Toccata for Trumpet and Orchestra, 57
Tom Cat Blues, 178
Ton Doux Sourire, 186
Tram and the River, The, 85, 87
Travelin' All Alone, 20
Travis, Nick, 28
Treemonisha, 164
Tncrotism, 274
Trinkle Tinkk, 256, 257, 258
Trio in Flux, 76-83
Tristano, Lennie, 9, 10, 15, 71, 279
Trouble in the East, 219, 221-22,

Trouble in Mind, 190
Truitt, Sonny, 13
Tucker, Bobby, 23
Tune Up, 208-9
Tunisian Fantasy, 254
Turner, Joe, 29, 194
Twardzik, Dick, 70-71
Two Bass Ha, 57
Tynan, Kenneth, 104
Tyner, McCoy, 73, 209

Ultrafox, 186, 187
Ultraphone (record label), 185, 186
Un Poco Loco, 141
Una Muy Bonita, 102
Understanding Depression, 212
Underwood, Ian, 112, 113
Ungai Ha, 174
"Unique Thelonious Monk, The," 229—30
United Artists (record label), 71

Valburn, Jerry, 300
Van Heusen, Jimmy, 281
Vaughan, Sarah, 6
Vendame, 57, 242, 247
Venuti, Joe, 184
Verdi, Giuseppe, 164
Verve (record label), 254
Very Early, 212
Victor (record label), 144, 154, 159, 166

Page 330

Index 317

Village Vanguard (club), 27, 28, 29, 86,
107, 262

Village Vanguard Orchestra, 26
Vinson, Eddie, 206

Waller, Fats, 71, 151, 152, 199, 203,

Wallington, George, 51
Ware, Wilbur, 93, 116, 256, 258
Waring, Fred, 5
Warming, 232
Warren, Butch, 72, 95, 96-97
Washington, Dinah, 188-91, 216, 241
Waterman, Guy, 137n
Weary Blues, 164
"Weary Blues and Other Poems Read by

Langston Hughes," 192-96
Weather Bird, 4
Webb, Chick, 156
Webster, Ben, 39, 42-43, 195, 276
Webster, Freddy, 6
Wee, 253
Weill, Kurt, 194
Welding, Pete, 292
Welk, Lawrence, 24, 36
Wells, Dickie, 112, 194
Wellstood, Dick, 37
West, Harold (Doc), 44
West End Blues, 4
Weston, Randy, 93
Wettling, George, 31-32, 110
What If She Does Love You?, 290
Whims of Chambers, 217
Whisper Not, 15
Who Do You Work For?, 286-87
Why Are We Afraid?, 215
Wiggins, Gerald, 216
Wilber, Bob, 8-17

Wiley, Lee, 292
Wilkms, Ernie, 169, 243, 245
Williams, Al, 195
Williams, Clarence, 160, 173
Williams, Cootie, 212, 266, 267,

Williams, Mary Lou, 150
Wilson, Dick, 20-21
Wilson, John S., 290
Wilson, Nancy, 241
Wilson, Russ, 5, 7
Wilson, Shadow, 93, 256, 258
Wilson, Teddy, 5, 47, 234, 235, 254,

261, 280
Wtnin Boy, 161, 178
Wise, Arnie, 71
Wise, Robert, 58
Wolpe, Stefan, 15
Wolverine, The, 159
Wolverine Blues, 142-43, 158, 159-60,

Wood, Hally, 174
Wright, Leo, 254

Yancey, Jimmy, 161, 203
Yesterdays, 245
You Don't Know What Love Means, 280
You Stepped Out of a Dream, 280
Young, Lee, 216
Young, Lester, 10-11, 30, 37, 39, 56,

194, 200, 207, 212, 216, 235, 238,
280, 284, 285, 299, 300, 301, 302

Young, Trummy, 5
Young Blood, 28

Zardi's (club), 85
Zurke, Bob, 161

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