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TitleNutrition and Food Science Children and Young People
TagsObesity Dieting Body Mass Index Healthy Diet Nutrition
File Size1.3 MB
Total Pages104
Table of Contents
Gaps in the awareness of current nutrition issues as dependent on age
Prevalence of dieting, overweight, body image satisfaction and associated psychological problems in adolescent boys
Generating effective change in school meals: a case study
Breakfast frequency and fruit and vegetable consumption in Belgian adolescents
Impact of household food security and nutrition programme on the nutritional status of children in Oyo state, Nigeria
Habitual dietary calcium intake and body weight in 7–10 year old children
Nutritional knowledge and dietary intakes of young professional football players
Probiotic acidophilus milk for infants and children
Cultured milk products for lactose-intolerant recipients
Food facts
Book reviews
Conference reports
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Nutrition & Food
Children and young people

Volume 36 Number 5 2006

ISSN 0034-6659

nfs cover (i).qxd 19/09/2006 14:01 Page 1

Page 2

Nutrition & Food

Children and young people

Dr Mabel Blades

Access this journal online___________________________ 283

Editorial board ______________________________________ 284

Editorial ____________________________________________ 285

Gaps in the awareness of current nutrition issues as
dependent on age
Melanie S. Adams _________________________________________________ 286

Prevalence of dieting, overweight, body image
satisfaction and associated psychological problems in
adolescent boys
Abdulbari Bener, Abdulaziz Kamal, Ihab Tewfik and

Osman Sabuncuoglu _______________________________________________ 295

Generating effective change in school meals: a
case study
Claire Seaman and Julia Moss ______________________________________ 305

Breakfast frequency and fruit and vegetable
consumption in Belgian adolescents:
a cross-sectional study
P. Mullie, P. Clarys, D. De Ridder, P. Deriemaeker, N. Duvigneaud,

M. Hebbelinck, A.R. Grivegnée and P. Autier__________________________ 315

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ISSN 0034-6659

Volume 36
Number 5


Page 52

of the participants (71.6 per cent) and non-participants (72.9 per cent) had between
seven and 12 household members. The mean household size for the participants and
non-participants was 8.31 and 8.58 respectively. This is in support of other findings
indicating large household size of rural households (Ojolo, 1995; Siyanbola, 1995;
Fasorannti, 1999). There was a slight difference in the years of schooling spent by
household head between the two groups. Seventy-two per cent of participants’
household heads were literates and had attained primary, secondary or tertiary
education, while a lesser percentage (56.1 per cent) of the non-participants household
heads were represented in the same category (Table II). The mean years of schooling
were 7.09 and 4.21 for participants’ and non-participants’ household head. Improved
level of education within a household is advantageous for encouraging people to bring
about change.

Data in Table II further show that 33.0 per cent and 31.0 per cent of participants
and non-participants sourced drinking water from dug wells. It is worth noting that
none of the two groups had access to public tap. This has implications for child and
family health, as access to clean safe water may not be met. Also, majority of
participants (57 per cent) and non-participants (79.9 per cent) failed to treat their water
before drinking. However, 8.7 per cent and 2.3 per cent of the participants and non-
participants respectively, do boil their water before drinking. A very small proportion
of the households used the most sanitary means of human waste disposal. The bush
was therefore the most commonly used means among the non-participants (66.2 per
cent) while less than half (33.3 per cent) of participants resorted to the bush. FG/
UNICEF (1994) and Maxiya-Dixon et al. (2004) also revealed similar unhygienic
conditions at the household level which are pre-conditions for diarrhoea diseases in
young children. Also, majority of the participants (60.5 per cent) and 22 per cent of the
non-participants utilized health services on a regular basis. Household food security
status of the respondents revealed that while 12.8 per cent and 16.2 per cent of the
participants and the non-participants were food secure, 9.9 per cent of participants and
56.4 per cent of non-participants were food insecure. However, 77.2 per cent of the
participants and less than one-third (27.3 per cent) of the non-participants were
moderately food secure.

Personal/socio-economic characteristics Participant (n 5 210) Non-participants (n 5 210)

Table I.

Size of farm land cultivated (hectare)
, 1 34.5 22.2
1–1.99 46.8 54.7
2–2.99 13.2 20.2
> 3 11.5 10.4
Mean 1.86 1.32
Social organizations
Religious organization 82.7 52.7
Cooperative organisations 72.1 46.5
Women groups 76.0 8.1
Community development associations 28.9 18.1
Political organisations 15.9 4.7
Village council 6.7 8.1

Source: Field survey, 2001

Food security
and nutrition



Page 53

Utilization of HFSN recommendations by women farmers
Among the improved seeds/seedlings introduced, cassava cuttings and maize seeds
were the major ones presently being utilized by majority of the participants (Table III).
The percentage for the two crops was 72 per cent. There was a poor utilization of
fertilizer by women for most of their crop production. However, majority (77.5 per cent)
of the women indicated they have utilized them before. Only 1.0 per cent of the women
farmers indicated their present usage of fertilizer. There was also poor utilization of
improved livestock breeds (5.5 per cent) and feeding of livestock with crop residue
(34.1 per cent). Out of all the processing equipment, cassava processing machine,
melon sheller and maize hand sheller were well utilized by more than half of the

Table II.
Percentage distribution
of respondents by

Household related characteristics Participant Non-participant

Women status
Household head 15.1 24.6
1st/only wife 68.1 54.9
2nd wife 16.4 18.2
3rd wife 0.4 2.3
Household size
1–6 20.2 16.2
7–12 71.6 72.9
> 13 8.2 10.9
Mean 8.31 8.58
Years of schooling of household head
0 28.0 43.9
1–6 31.3 32.3
7–12 30.1 17.4
13–18 10.6 6.4
Mean 7.09 4.21
Sources of drinking water
Well 63.5 51.2
Stream 3.5 17.7
Borehole 33.0 31.1
Water treatment
No treatment 57.0 79.9
Addition of Alum 14.7 12.1
Filteration 19.6 5.7
Boiling 8.7 2.3
Waste disposal
Bush 33.3 66.2
Ordinary pit latrine 54.2 31.7
VIP 8.4 2.1
Water closet 4.1 –
Use of health services
Regularly 60.5 22.2
Occasionally 39.1 69.6
Not at all 0.4 8.2
Household food security status
Food insecure 9.9 56.4
Moderate 77.2 27.3
Food secure/adequate 12.8 16.2

Source: Field survey, 2001



Page 103

Conference reports

Hospital Caterers Association National Conference
April 2006
The Hospital Caterers Association held its Annual Conference in April 2006 at the
Hilton Birmingham Metropole Hotel on the National Exhibition Centre Campus. This
year the member organisations of Healthcare Caterers International (HCI) attended the

The association was delighted to host HCI’s 2nd International Symposium which
this year focused on nutritional care. The main topic of the symposium was on

The conference included a large exhibition of more than 60 food and equipment
suppliers which was open and free of charge to non-delegates on Thursday 27 April
2006 from 10.30 am to 4.00 pm.

For further information, please contact

Chartered Institute of Environmental Health (CIEH)
The CIEH has produced a new level 2 qualification in Nutrition. This is a short course
culminating with an examination and covers a basic level of nutrition.

It is organising various training seminars around the country for trainers who wish
to deliver the course as well as providing course books and trainers’ notes and

More information is available at: or call the events department
on 020 7827 5856

Westminster Diet and Health Forum Consultation Seminar: Food
Promotion to Children
Timing: morning, 1 June 2006; venue: Westminster, SW1
This meeting brought together key stakeholders to discuss Ofcom’s consultation on
food advertising to children. Timing of this seminar was arranged with Ofcom to tie in
with their consultation. Its purpose was to provide an opportunity to share opinions
and to help move forward thinking in this area.

The discussions were reported in a policy briefing document – an extremely
important output from the day. This publication contains transcripts of all the
speeches and comments made during the day, together with further articles submitted
by interested parties. It was distributed to the key figures deciding policy in these
areas in Government and Parliament, as well as to all delegates.

Ian Blair, who is leading the consultation for Ofcom, agreed to take part, together
with Rosemary Hignett, Head of Nutrition Division at the Food Standards Agency.
Claire Phillips, Director of Policy and Research at the Office of the Children’s
Commissioner, gave a keynote address.

Other speakers included: Andrew Brown, Chairman, Broadcast Committee of
Advertising Practice; Malcolm Earnshaw, Director General, Incorporated Society of
British Advertisers (ISBA); Trish Fields, Consumer Impact Director, Cadbury
Schweppes; Richard D. North, Media Fellow, Institute of Economic Affairs; Kate
Stross, Commercial Director, Ofcom; and a senior representative from Which?.



Nutrition & Food Science
Vol. 36 No. 5, 2006
pp. 382-383

E Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Page 104

Attendees, invited from the contacts of both the Westminster Diet and Health
Forum and the Westminster Media Forum, were a senior and informed group
numbering over 100, including members of both Houses of Parliament, officials
involved in this area of public policy and representatives of industry, the food,
healthcare, media and advertising sectors, interest groups, consumer groups and

The Westminster Diet and Health Forum, and its sister forum the Westminster
Media Forum, are impartial and cross-party, and have enjoyed considerable support
from within Parliament and government. They organise senior level seminars on
public policy in nutrition and health, and media, which receive prominent coverage in
the national and trade media. The Forums have no policy agenda of their own.

For more information, please contact

Vitafoods International
9–11 May, Geneva PALEXPO
Vitafoods International was held again in Geneva.

This exhibition had 50 companies exhibiting the latest products in the dietary
supplement, functional food and functional drinks industries. There were also 350
exhibiting companies organised into seven international pavilions which made it a
truly global event.

For more information, please contact Charlie Hastings, Marketing Director,
Vitafoods International.



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