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Titlep Block Equations
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M anufacture of HNO 3 (Ostwald’s process) :

4NH3 + 5O2 → 4NO + 6H2O
2NO + O2 ↔ 2NO2
3NO2 + H2O → 2HNO3 + NO

Oxidising properties of HNO 3 :
3Cu + 8HNO3(dil) → 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O
Cu + 4HNO3(conc) → Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O
4Zn + 10HNO3(dil) → 4Zn(NO3)2 + 5H2O + N2O
Zn + 4HNO3(conc) → Zn(NO3)2 + 2H2O + 2NO2
I2 + 10HNO3(conc) → 2HIO3 + + 10NO2 + 4H2O
C + 4HNO3 (conc)→ CO2 + 2H2O + 4NO2
S8 + 48HNO3(conc) → 8H2SO4 + 48NO2 + 16H2O
P4 + 20HNO3(conc) → 4H3PO4 + 20NO2 + 4H2O

Ch emistry of Brown Ring test :

NO3- + 3Fe2+ + 4H+ → NO + 3Fe3+ + 2H2O
[Fe(H2O) 6] 2+ + NO → [Fe(H2O) 5NO] 2+ + H2O
Brown ring
Properties of white P4 :

1) Burns in air P4 + 5O2 → P4 O10
2) Reaction with hot concentrated NaOH or KOH

P4 + 3NaOH + 3H2O → PH3 + 3NaH2PO2
P4 + 3KOH + 3H2O → PH3 + 3KH2PO2

Poisonous gas phosphine, PH3 with fishy odour produced

Preparation of Phosphi ne(PH 3) :

1) Ca3 P2 + 6H2O → 3Ca(OH)2 + 2PH3
2) Ca3 P2 + 6HCl → 3CaCl2 + 2PH3
3) PH4I + KOH → KI + H2O + PH3

Properties of PH3 :
1) Basic nature

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