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\tf\·Guide for Studer~) (~
of English as

a Second Languan

Page 2

Library of Congress Cataloging III PtJblJcalfon Data
ARNAUDlIT, MARTIN L

Paragraph development

Includes index.
1. English language-Text·books for foreigners.

2. English language-Paragraphs. t Barrett, Mary
Ellen, joint author. It Title.
PEll2828.A67 808'.042 SO-24575
ISBN 0·13-648618·5

© 1981 by Prentice-HalL Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.}. 07632

All rights reserved. No part of this OOok
may be reproduced in any fonn or
by any means without pennission in writing
from the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

10 9 8 7 6 5 4

Editorial production/supervision by Diane Lange
Cover design by Jayne Conte
Manufacturing buyer: Harry P. Baisley

PRENTICE· HALL INTERNATIONAL, INC, London
PRENTICE·HALL OF AUSTRALIA PrY. LIMITED, Sydney
PRENTICE·HALL OF CANADA, LTD., Toronto
PRENTICE· HALL OF INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED. New Delhi
PREl'<TICE-HALL OF JAPAN. INC. Tokyo
PRENTICE· HALL OF SoUTHEAST AsIA PrE. LTD., Singapore
WHITEHALL BooKS LIMITED. Wellington, New Zealand

1

CONTENTS

Foreword vii

Preface ix

THE TOPIC SENTENCE
Paragraph Unity

2

The Paragraph 1
Indentation 1
Length 2
Topic vs. Topic Sentence 3
Paragraph Unity 8

SUPPORTING TOPIC SENTENCES
Examples, Details, Anecdotes,
Facts, and Statistics

EXAMPLES 22
DETAILS 25

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PROCESS AND CHRONOLOGY

4. What statistics have been used?

5. Do you notice any enumerators and listing signals? ______ _

Any time clauses? (Underline them in the paragraph.)

6. Make a simple list which demonstrates the structure of the model para-
graph. Be sure to give your list a title.

~ISTING SIGNALS
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Enumerators are rarely used in chronological order. We might occasion-
ally write "the next thing" or "the next event," but the reader does not usually
need this kind of signal to understand what is being talked about.

However, we do often use Group 1 Process Listing Signals. Refer back to
page 66 at this point to refresh your memory.

, NOW ASK YOURS~Lf
Comparing the forms of the verbs in the box on page 66 with the forms of
the verbs in the model paragraph which you have just read, what is one way
in which process differs from narrative chronological order?

'. AiE CLUES
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Time clues of all kinds are, of course, very often used in chronology. Once
again, however, as with listing signals, the forms of the verbs are not generally
present forms, as they were in process, but rather past forms. In addition,
prepositional phrases of time often appear:

• ;aeeta 22;
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PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES OF TIME

IN 1956
I N January, february, etc.
IN the afternoon, the morning, the evening
AT 9:00
AT noon, midnight, night

ON Monday, Tuesday, etc.
ON July6
ON July 6,1955

, NOW ASK YOURSELf

Which prepositions of time are used with the follOWing:

1. Days of the week? _______ _

2. Months of the year? _______ _

3. An exact date?

4. Parts of the day? (two prepositions) _____________ _

5., A specific year? ___________ _

6. A particular hour of the day? ___________ ._._. __

I EXERCI\sE 4-11
i Controlled Writing: Tense Shift

Directions: Rewrite the model process paragraph on page 63 ("Nobel Prize
Winners"). This time, assume that the entire process occurred several
months ago. In other words, describe it as though you were describing a real
past event. The topic sentence has been given to you.

Earlier this year, preparations were made once again to pick the new

Nobel laureates. _______________ _

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PROCESS AND CHRONOLOGY

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EXERCISE 4-12
Unscra~bling a Chronological Paragraph

Directi0n8: Place the scrambled sentences below in their correct order; use
the time line as your work space. Then, if your teacher wishes, copy the
reconstructed paragraph on the lines which have been provided.

a. First, I had to go to the post office.

b. Half of the letters were addressed to American business
concerns.

c. I got up at 6:30 A.M.

d. When I left the train station, I took my boss's car to the garage
for repairs.

e. When I arrived at the office, my boss had several things for me
to do.

E I left the house at 7:45.

g. The other half were addressed to foreign companies.

h. After typing the letters, I had to run several errands.

i. Yesterday morning was quite hectic for me.

j. Then I had to pick up a train ticket for my boss's wife.

k. He asked me to type twenty letters for him.
1 By 1:00 P.M., I was exhausted, so I decided to have a long,

leisurely lunch.

ANALYSIS (Time tine)

Topic Sentence:

(6;00A.M.) ...•

(7:00 A.M.) ... .

(8:00 AM.) ... .

(9:00 AM) ...•

(10:00 AM,) .. ,.

(11 :00 AM.) •...

(12:00 P.M.) ••••

(1:00 P.M.) ••• ,

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INDEX

Anecdotes, 33-34

Cause (see also Effect, Chain reaction),
101-19

defin ed, 101
diagrams, 101, 115-16
model paragraph, 113--14
structural signals, 104-7

Chain reaction (see also Cause, Effect):
defined, 120
diagrams, 121-22
model paragraph, 120

Charts (see Diagrams and charts)
Chronological order, 86-100

absence of enumerators, 88
defined, 86
diagram ("time line"), 87
listing signals, 88
model paragraph, 86-87
relationship to enumeration and proc-

ess, 86
time clues, 88-89

Circular definitions (see Definition, prob-
lems in)

Classification (see Enumeration)

Comparison (see also Comparison and
contrast), 125-37

chart, 127
defined, 126
model paragraph, 126
structures of, 128-34

Comparison and contra~t, 156-63
chart, 157-59
defined, 156
model paragraphs, 156-57

Composition writing:
conclusions, 182
controlling ideas, 182-83
diagram, 182
expansion from a paragraph, 180-85
introductions, 182
mixing methods of development, 186

Contrast (see also Comparison and con-
trast), 137-56

chart, 139
defined, 127
model paragraph, 137-38
methods of, 145-53

diagram, 145
structures of. 140-44

191

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1 ')INDEX

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Definition:
diagram, 165
extended fonnal definitions, 167
fonnal definitions, 164-66
mixed methods of development, 17e;;.

77
model definitions:

extended fonnal, 16'7
fonnal, 164
stipulated, 172-75

probll'lms in, 168-71
circular definitions, 168
overextended definitions, 168
overrestricted definitions, 168

stipulated definitions, 172-77
Descending order (see Enumeration)
Details, 25-32
Diagrams and charts (by technique or

type of development):
anecdotes, 33 ,',
cause, focus on, 101,ill5-16
chain reaction, 121-22
chronological order, "87
comparison, 127
comparison and contrast, 157-59
composition, expansion from a para-

graph, 182
contrast, 139

Method 1 vs. Method 2, 145
definition (fonnal), 165
details, 26, 28
effect, focus on, 10 1, 103
enumeration, 40-41

equal, ascending, and descending
orders, 50

examples, 23-24
facts and statistics, 35
indentation, 2
limiting a topic sentence (categories),

4
process, 62
pronoun reference and word repeti-

tion, 76
time clues, 70
unity in a paragraph, 8,10-11

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Effect (see also Cause, Chain reaction),

102-13

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defined, 101. 120
diagrams, 101, 103
model paragraph, 102
structural signals, 104-7

)

. Enumeration:
defined, 39-40
diagram and chart, 4(}..41
enumerators, 41-42
listing Signals, 42-44, 47-48
model paragraph, 40
order of importance, 46-61

ascending order, 47-48, 50
descending order, 48-50
equal order, 46-47, 50

Enumerators (see Enumeration)
Equal order (see Enumeration)
Examples, 22-25
Extended defmitions (see Definition)

Facts and statistics, 35-38
Formal definitions (see Definition)

Indentation, 1-2
Irrelevant sentences (see Unity)

Length, 2-3
Limiting a topic (see Topic sentence)
Listingsignals (see Enumeration, Process)
Logical division (see Enumeration,

defined)

Models (by technique or type of
development) ;

anecdotes, 33
cause, focus on, 113-14
chain reaction, 120
chronolOgical order, 86-87
comparison, 126
comparison and contrast, 156-57
composition, expansion from a para-

graph, 180-81,184-85
contrast, 137-38

Method 1 vs, Method 2, 137-38,
146, 150-51

definition:
extended formal, 167
formal, 164
stipulated, 172-75

details, 26
effect, focus on, 102
facts and statistics, 35
enumeration:

ascending order. 48
descending order. 49
equal order. 40

examples, 22

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Models (cont)
process, 63
pronoun reference and word repeti-

tion, 76
time clues, 70
unity in a paragraph, 11

Order of importance (see Enumeration)
Overextended definitions (see Definition)
Overrestricted definitions (see Definition)

Paragraph length (see Length)
Paragraph unity (see Unity)
Process, 62-86, 88

defined,62
diagram, 62
enumerators, 65-66
listing signals, 69
model paragraph, 63
relationship to enumeration, 62
time clues, 69-76

Pronoun reference and word repetition,
76-77

Statistics (see Facts and statistics)
Stipulated definitions (see Definition)
Structures (structural signals);

cause-effect. 104-7
comparison, 128-34

• contrast, 140-44
examples, 22

INDEX 193

Structures (cont)
listing signals;

enumeration, ascending order, 47
enumeration, descending order, 48
enumeration, equal order, 42-44
proCess, 66-68

time, 69-76

Time clues;
use in chronology, 88-90
use in process, 69-75

Topic sentence;
categories of limitation in, 4
compared to controlling idea of a com-

position, 182-83
defined, 3
"double" topic sentences, 147-48
key (controlling) words and phrases

in, 3-4
placement of, 3
"split" topic sentence. 160

Unity:
criteria, 8-9
diagrams, 8,10-11
irrelevant sentences, 9-10, 12-13
model paragraph, 10

Word repetition (see Pronoun reference
and word repetition)

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