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Table of Contents
                            Cover Page
ABOUT THE EDITORS
Title Page
ISBN 0071422943
Contents
Contributors
Preface to the Eighth Edition
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	Q
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	X,Z
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Perry’s
Chemical

Engineers’
Handbook

Page 25

INDEX 7

density, gases (Cont.):
accentric deviations Z(1) from compressibility

factor for a simple fluid, 2-501
calculation methods, 2-497
cubic equation of state, 2-499
cubic equation of state relationships, 2-502
compressibility factors Z(0) for a simple fluid,

2-500
Lee-Kesler method, 2-499
Lee-Kesler method constants for two refer-

ence fluids, 2-502
Peng-Robinson equation of state, 2-502
Rackett method, 2-503
Soave equation of state, 2-502
Tsonopoulos method, 2-498

liquids, 2-503
calculation methods, 2-503
Rackett method, 2-503

mixtures, 2-503
calculation methods, 2-503
cubic equation of state, 2-504
Spencer-Danner-Li method, 2-504

solids, 2-503
calculation methods, 2-503
Goodman method, 2-503

density function theory, 7-38
depletion, 9-22

IRS publication 535, 9-22
depreciation, 9-21

MACRS modified accelerated cost recovery
system, 9-21

depreciation class lives, 9-21
example of, 9-22
straight-line, 9-21

derating factors, 14-41
derivation, response curve, 8-18
design, process safety, 23-38 to 23-41

actions needed for safer and user-friendly plants,
23-39

attenuation or moderation, 23-38
ease of control, 23-39
intensification or minization, 23-38
knock-on effects, 23-38
limitation of effects of failures, 23-38
low leak rate, 23-39
making incorrect assembly impossible, 23-39
making status clear, 23-39
simplification, 23-38
software, 23-39
substitution, 23-38
tolerance, 23-39

incident investigation and human error, 23-39
recommendations for prevention/mitigation,

23-40
dessicant cooling cycle flow diagram, 16-59
determinant, 7-9
detuning, 8-27
deuterium oxide (heavy water), thermodynamic

properties, 2-209, 2-256 to 2-257
deviation alarms, 8-67
device-level diagnostics, 8-89
dew-point method, moisture measurement, 8-63
dew-point temperature, 12-4, 13-15
diaphragm elements, 8-59
dielectric constant, 8-62
difference equations, 3-34 to 3-36

factorization, 3-36
homogeneous, 3-35
method of undetermined coefficients, 3-35
method of variation of parameters, 3-35
nonhomogeneous, 3-35
reduction of order, 3-36
Riccati difference equation, 3-36
substitution, 3-36
variable coefficients, 3-35

differential calculus:
continuity, 3-19
derivatives, 3-19 to 3-21
functional notation, 3-18
limits, 3-18 to 3-19

differentials, 3-19 to 3-20
differentiation, 3-19
L’Hospital’s Theorem, 3-20
operations, 3-19
partial, 3-20 to 3-21

differential data analysis, 7-36
differential gap, 8-13
differential pressure controller, 8-42
differential transformer, 8-64
diffusion, solid, 16-20
diffusion in porous solids, 5-58 to 5-59
diffusion limitations, 7-21
diffusivity, 7-25

estimation of gas, 5-50 to 5-53
binary mixtures, 5-50 to 5-52
correlations, 5-51
multicomponent mixtures, 5-53
supercritical mixtures, 5-52

estimation of liquids, 5-53 to 5-58
binary mixtures, 5-54 to 5-57
multicomponent mixtures, 5-57 to 5-58

interdiffusion coefficient, 5-45
mass, 5-45
mutual, 5-45
self-diffusivity, 5-45, 5-52
tables, 5-50
tracer, 5-45

digital controllers, single station, 8-5
digital field communications, 8-70, 8-86
digital hardware in process control, 8-69
digital systems, 8-65
digital technology for process control, 8-68

measurement devices, 8-68
production controls, 8-68
real-time optimization, 8-68
regulatory controls, 8-68
safety, 8-68

digital valve controller, 8-87 to 8-88
digital valves, 8-76
dimensional analysis, 3-88 to 3-89
dimensionless concentration variables, 16-13
dimethylpropane (neopentane), thermodynamic

properties, 2-258 to 2-259
diphenyl, saturated, thermodynamic properties,

2-260
direct-fired combustion equipment, 24-41
discharge coefficient, 8-59
discrete control models, 8-8
discrete device states, 8-49
discrete logic, 8-50
discrete measurements, 8-54
disperser plate, 15-72
dispersion, axial:

breakthrough behavior, 16-35
in packed beds, 16-22 to 16-23, 16-25

dispersion fundamentals, liquid-liquid, 15-41
to 15-44

drop size, 15-42-15-43
characteristic diameter, 15-42
Weber number, 15-42

holdup, 15-41
interfacial area, 15-41
liquid-liquid dispersion stability, 15-43

emulsion breakage, 15-43
Marangoni instabilities, 15-43 to 15-44
phase dispersal factors, 15-41 to 15-42
Sauter-mean diameter, 15-41
solid-surface wettability, 15-43

wear-related surface alterations, 15-43
dispersion units, 16-31

displacement purge, 16-53
distance-velocity lag, in control systems, 8-10
distillation:

azetropic, 13-68, 13-81 to 13-87, 13-116
batch, 13-116
design, 13-87
entrainer selection, 13-81 to 13-85
immiscible liquids, 13-85
operation, 13-87

batch, 13-5, 13-109 to 13-116
azeotropic, 13-116
binary calculations, 13-11 to 13-14
constant level, 13-114
multicomponent calculations, 13-114
operation, 13-110 to 13-111
with recifilation, 13-109 to 13-110
simple, 13-109

definition of, 13-4
degrees of freedom and design variables, 13-55

to 13-58
analysis, 13-56 to 13-58
definitions, 13-55

efficiencies, 13-25, 13-43 to 13-44
Murphree, 13-25, 13-43 to 13-44
overall column, 13-43
Taylor-Baur-Krishna (TBK), 13-43

equilibrium stage correct, 13-5
extractive, 13-87 to 13-93

design/optimization, 13-89 to 13-91
solvent effects, 13-88 to 13-89
solvent selection, 13-91 to 13-93

graphical methods, 13-16 to 13-25
McCabe-Thiele, 13-6 to 13-25, 13-35 to 13-39

heat integration, 13-65 to 13-67
multicomponent methods, 13-25 to 13-55

continuation methods, 13-35
Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland (FUG),

13-25 to 13-27
inside-out method, 13-33
Kremser method, 13-28 to 13-30
simultaneous convergence, 13-33
tearing method, 13-33

nonequilibrium modeling, 13-46 to 13-55
Maxwell-Stefan approach, 13-52 to 13-55
software, 13-55

petroleum, 13-99 to 13-109
applications, 13-102
characterization, 13-97
design procedures, 13-103 to 13-108

pitchfork boundary, 13-85
pressure swing, 13-82 to 13-83
pseudocritical point, 13-9
reactive, 13-93 to 13-98

application, 13-94, 13-96 to 13-97
design/implementation, 13-95
modeling, 13-94

region diagrams, 13-72 to 13-77
single stage equilibrium flash calculations, 13-15

to 13-16
adiabatic flash, 13-16
isothermal flash, 13-15
specifications, 13-16
three-phase, 13-16

systems, 13-58 to 13-67
direct split, 13-58
dividing wall columns, 13-59 to 13-64
indirect split, 13-58
pretractionator, 13-59
thermally coupled, 13-59 to 13-64

thermodynamic data and models, 13-6 to 13-15
phase equilibrium data, 13-6 to 13-14

thermodynamic efficiency, 13-65 to 13-67
tower configurations, 13-61 to 13-63
tray efficiencies, 13-5
trays, binary systems, 13-7

Page 26

8 INDEX

distillation column, control of, 8-41
distributed control system, 8-29, 8-50, 8-69,

8-72, 8-86
distributed database, 8-70
distributed lags, tuning rule in control, 8-18
dodecane, thermodynamic properties, 2-261

to 2-262
dominant lag, tuning rule in control, 8-16, 8-18
Donnan uptake, 16-14
double-entry bookkeeping, 9-4

credit side, 9-4
debit side, 9-4

dry-basis humidity, 12-4
dryer, fluosolids, 17-18
dryer modeling, design and scale-up, 12-50

to 12-56
drying time, 12-51
falling rate kinetics, 12-51
heat/mass balance, 12-50, 12-75
scale up effects, 12-51
scaling models, 12-52 to 12-54

incremental model, 12-52
drying (solids) equipment selection, 12-48 to

12-50
drying equipment (solids):

agitated and rotating batch dryers, 12-56, 12-65
to 12-81

calculations of dimensions, 12-70,
conical mixer dryer, 12-68
heated agitators, 12-67
horizontal pan dryer, 12-67 to 12-68
tumbler or double-cone dryers, 12-69, 12-73
vertical pan dryer, 12-68

agitated flash dryers, 12-101 to 12-104
batch through-circulation dryers, 12-44, 12-59
cascading rotary dryers, 12-56
centrifuge dryers, 12-89
classification, 12-40
continuous agitated dryers, 12-71 to 12-81

direct rotary kiln, 12-72
direct Roto-Louvre dryer, 12-72,

12-80 to 12-81
indirect rotary calciner, 12-72, 12-79 to 12-80
indirect steam-tube dryer, 12-72, 12-77
paddle dryers, 12-45, 12-71, 12-73

continuous sheeting dryers, 12-45
continuous through circulation band dryers,

12-44, 12-64 to 12-65, 12-67
cylinder dryers, 12-44, 12-89 to 12-90
dielectric (RF and microwave) dryers, 12-42,

12-45, 12-105 to 12-106
direct rotary dryers, 12-45, 12-46, 12-72, 12-74,

12-77, 12-78
dispersion, dryers, 12-42
drum dryers, 12-44, 12-87 to 12-89
dryer classification, 12-40 to 12-48

gas circuit, 12-47
gas-solids separations, 12-47
heater, 12-47
solids feeders, 12-47

entrainment dryers, 12-56
film dryers, 12-89
filterdryers, 12-89
fluid-bed dryers, 12-45, 12-56, 12-82

batch fluid beds, 12-85
continuous backmix beds, 12-86
continuous contact fluid beds, 12-86
continuous fluid beds, 12-86
continuous plug-flow beds, 12-86
direct heat vibrating conveyor dryer,

12-82 to 12-87
fluid-bed granulators, 12-87
fluidization velocity, 12-84
freeze dryers, 12-104 to 12-105
gas-flow pattern 12-47

drying equipment (solids) (Cont.):
gas-flow pattern,
gravity or moving bed dryers, 12-63
infrared dryers, 12-42, 12-45, 12-105 to 12-106
layer dryers, 12-42, 12-46
pan dryers, 12-43
plate dryers, 12-61 to 12-62
pneumatic conveying dryers, 12-45, 12-97 to

12-99
residence time, 12-54, 12-55, 12-72, 12-74,

12-75
ring dryers, 12-99 to 12-103
screw conveyor and indirect rotary dryers,

12-43
spouted bed dryers, 12-45, 12-82
spray dryers, 12-45, 12-87, 12-90 to 12-98

rotary atomizer 12-91 to 12-93, 12-97
stenters and textile dryers, 12-90
tower dryers, 12-63
tray and compartment dryers, 12-44, 12-46,

12-54, 12-56 to 12-61
tunnel/continuous tray dryers, 12-44, 12-59,

12-63 to 12-64
belt conveyor or screen conveyor, 12-63
ceramic tunnel kiln, 12-64

vacuum freeze dryers, 12-43
vacuum horizontal agitated and rotary dryers,

12-43, 12-72
vacuum tray/shelf dryers, 12-43, 12-59, 12-60
vibrating tray, vacuum band dryers, 12-44

drying kinetics, 12-29 to 12-30
drying curve, 12-29
period of drying, 12-29 to 12-30

drying of solids, 12-25 to 12-109
drying software, 12-109
mass and energy balances, 12-26 to 12-28
mathematical modeling, 12-30 to 12-35

characteristic drying curve, 12-34
characteristic moisture content, 12-34
mass balance equations, 12-31

moisture transport mechanisms, 12-29
relative drying rate, 12-35, 12-53
thermodynamics, 12-28 to 12-29

drying operations, 8-46
Dubinin-Radushkerich equation, 16-14
Duhem’s theorem, 4-27 to 4-28
Dukler theory, 5-14
dumb transmitters, conventional transmitter,

8-66
dust clouds, combustion data for, 23-14
dust collection, 17-28 to 17-63

air filters, 17-52 to 17-55
air-filter types, 17-54 to 17-55
air-filtration theory, 17-52 to 17-54
applications of, 17-52

cyclone separators, 17-28 to 17-36
case of vortex, 17-29
commercial equipment and operations, 17-35

to 17-36
cyclone design factors, 17-32 to 17-33
cyclone efficiency, 17-30 to 17-31
fields of applications, 17-29
flow pattern, 17-29 to 17-30
performance curves, 17-38 to 17-39
performance models, 17-37 to 17-39
pressure drop, 17-31 to 17-32

dry scrubbing, 17-43 to 17-45
electrical precipitators, 17-55 to 17-63

applications, 17-57
charging of particles, 17-56
coal combustion fly-ash, 17-59
collection efficiency, 17-57
conditioning agents, 17-59
current flow, 17-56
electric wind, 17-56

dust collection, electrical precipitators (Cont.):
field strength, 17-55
high-pressure, high-temperature EP, 17-57

to 17-59
particle mobility, 17-56 to 17-57
potential and ionization, 17-55 to 17-56
power supply, 17-62
rapping, 17-61
resistivity issues, 17-59
types of, 17-60 to 17-63

fabric filters (bag filters with baghouses),
17-46 to 17-51

collection efficiency, 17-49 to 17-51
filter fabrics, 17-49
filter types, 17-47 to 17-49
gas pressure drops, 17-46 to 17-47
granular-bed filters, 17-51 to 17-52
Kozeny-Carman equation, 17-46

gravity settling chambers, 17-28
impingement separators, 17-28
mechanical centrifugal separators, 17-36
mechanisms, 17-26 to 17-27

sonic or acoustic agglomeration, 17-26
Stefan flow, 17-26

particulate scrubbers, 17-36 to 17-43
performance, 17-27
purpose of, 17-24
scrubber types:

cyclone, 17-42
ejector venturi, 17-40
electronically agumented, 17-43
fiber-bed, 17-43
mechanical, 17-43
mobile-bed, 17-42 to 17-43
packed-bed, 17-42
plate tower, 17-42
self-induced spray, 17-41
spray, 17-41 to 17-42
venturi, 17-40 to 17-41

dust collector design, 17-27
polydisperse test dust, 17-27

dust separation, 17-14
cyclones, 17-14 to 17-16

cyclone arrangements, 17-15
solids return seals, 17-15

dynamic compensation, in control analysis, 8-22
dynamic models, use in control, 8-30

fitting to experimental data, 8-12
simulation, 8-7

Eckert pressure-drop correlation, packed towers,
14-58

economc journal, 9-4
account title, 9-4
example of, 9-5
invoices, 9-4
receipts, 9-4

economic project, execution and analysis,
9-41 to 9-53

economizers:
acid dew point, 24-52
background, 24-51
boiler thermal efficiency, 24-52
condensing, 24-52 to 24-54

collateral combustion emissions, 24-54
efficiency graph, 24-53
environmental benefits, 24-54
flue gas pollutant removal, 24-54
flue gas sensible heat, 24-52
fuel avoidance, 24-52
technologies, 24-52 to 24-54
water vapor latent heat, 24-52

conventional, 24-52
water dew point, 24-52

Page 49

INDEX 31

viscosity, gases (Cont.):
Reichenberg group contribution values,

2-505
Reichenberg method, 2-505
Yoon-Thodos method, 2-505

kinematic, 10-7
liquids, 2-506

calculation methods, 2-506
Hsu method, 2-506
Hsu method group contributions, 2-507

to 2-508
liquid mixtures, 2-506

calculation methods, 2-506
Grunberg-Nissan equation, 2-506
UNIFAC-VISCO method, 2-508
UNIFAC-VISCO group interaction

parameters, 2-509
viscous materials, mixing (pastes and doughs):

anchor, 18-28
double, triple shaft, 18-31
helical ribbon, 18-28
kneading, double arm, 18-31
planetary, 18-30

VOCs, removal for air, costs, 22-51
voidage, total, 16-10
volumetric growth rate, 7-18
volumetric humidity, 12-4, 12-5
von Deemter equation, 16-44
vortex shedding, 6-41 to 6-42

flowmeters, 8-60

waste fuel analysis, 24-7
wastewater, categories, 22-59
wastewater, characteristics and treatment, 22-69

dissolved solids, 22-62
equalization, 22-63
grease and oil removal, 22-64
inorganics, 22-62
neutralization, 22-63
nutrients and eutrophication, 22-62
oil and grease, 22-63
organics, 22-60
pH and alkalinity, 22-62
physical-chemical treatment, 22-76

adsorption, 22-76
advanced oxidation process, 22-77

wastewater, characteristics and treatment,
physical-chemical treatment (Cont.):
chemical oxidation, 22-77
concentration: thickening and flotation,

22-79
industrial reuse, 22-78
ion exchange, 22-77
membrane bioreactors (MBRs), 22-78
membrane processes, 22-78
objectives, 22-78
sludge processing, 22-78, 22-80
stabilization, 22-79
stripping, 22-77

pretreatment, 22-63
primary, treatment, 22-64

chemical precipitation, 22-65
gravity sedimentation, 22-64
grit chambers, 22-64
screens, 22-64

priority pollutants, 22-60
secondary treatment, 22-65

activated sludge, 22-69
biological fluidized beds, 22-75
design of biological treatment systems,

22-66
determination of kinetic and stoichiometric

pseudo constants, 22-68
fixed-film reactor systems, 22-74
lagoons, 22-72
packed-bed fixed-film systems, 22-74
reactor concepts, 22-67
rotating biological contactors (RBCs), 22-74
trickling filters, 22-3

solids, 22-62
temperature, 22-62
toxic substances, 22-64
wastewater treatment, 22-63
whole effluent toxicity (WET), 22-63

water:
Antoine vapor pressure, 13-14
BIP data, 13-13
residue curve, 13-90
residue maps, 13-70, 13-79
saturated solid/vapor, thermodynamic properties,

2-412
sensitivity of composition and temperature, 13-79

to 13-80

water (Cont.):
thermodynamic properties, 2-413 to 2-415
VLE data, 13-9, 13-7, 13-9

water content of air, 2-95
water substance along the melting line,

thermodynamic properties, 2-416
water treatment ion exchange cycles, 16-54
wave shape, 16-38
weighting factor, 8-30
weights and measures, U.S. customary, 1-18
western electric rule, 8-37
wet basis, 12-26

humidity, 12-4
wet density, 16-10
wet-bulb temperature, 12-5, 12-6
wet-dry cooling, 12-25
wetted-wall columns, 14-82

flooding in wetted-wall columns, 14-85
mass transfer, 14-83

Wien equation, 5-16
wood, 24-7
work:

ideal, 4-38 to 4-39
lost, 4-39

working capital, 9-6, 9-9, 9-10, 9-17
workstations, process control, 8-70
Wurster coaters, sizes and capacities,

21-133

xenon, 2-307, 2-417 to 2-418

z transform, 7-30, 8-8
zeolites, 16-8
Ziegler and Nichols closed-loop method,

8-19
zone melting, 20-5 to 20-6

applications, 20-6
component separation, 20-5

zone method, 5-24 to 5-27, 5-36 to 5-39
electrical network analog, 5-27 to 5-28
examples, 5-28 to 5-29
matrix formulation, 5-25, 5-36 to 5-37
methodology, 5-25
multizone enclosures, 5-27
two zone enclosure, 5-26

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