Download Race, Evolution, and Behavior - A Life History Perspective [3rd Unabridged Edition] (2000) by John Philippe Rushton.pdf PDF

TitleRace, Evolution, and Behavior - A Life History Perspective [3rd Unabridged Edition] (2000) by John Philippe Rushton.pdf
TagsEthnicity Race & Gender Hiv/Aids Race (Human Categorization) Intelligence Quotient Sexually Transmitted Infection
File Size11.9 MB
Total Pages399
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Contents
	List of Tables
	List of Figures
Preface to the Third Edition
	Is Race Really Only Skin Deep?
	Brain Size
	Head Shape and Progressive Evolution
	Sexual Behavior
	Crime
	Darwin’s Really Dangerous Idea — the Primacy of Variation
	References
Preface to the First Edition
Acknowledgments
01. Revamping Social Science
	The Nature-Nurture Debate
	The Revolution Ahead
	Sir Francis Galton
	Counterrevolution
	The Distal-Proximal Continuum
02. Character Traits
	The Altruistic Personality
	The Principle of Aggregation
	Behavioral Consistency
	Judges’ Ratings
	Longitudinal Stability
	Predicting Behavior
	One Problem with Experimental Studies
	Spearman’s g
	Decision-Making Speed
	Intelligence and Brain Size
03. Behavioral Genetics
	Methods
	Emergenic Traits
	The Heritability of Behavior
	Threshold Model
	Epigenesis in Development
	Gene-Culture Correlation
04. Genetic Similarity Theory
	The Paradox of Altruism
	Detecting Genetic Similarity
	Kin Recognition in Animals
	Kin Recognition in Humans
	Spouse Selection
	Intrafamilial Relationships
	A Genetic Basis for Friendship
	Ethnocentrism
	Selection of Groups
05. Race and Racism in History
	Racism
	Race as Breeding Group
	Islamic Ethnology
	Christian Explorers
	The Enlightenment
	After Darwin
06. Race, Brain Size, and Intelligence
	Brain Weight at Autopsy
	Endocranial Volume
	External Head Measurements
	Brain Size from Infancy to Adolescence
	Summary of Brain Size Data
	Intelligence Test Scores
	Spearman’s g
	Decision Times
	Cultural Achievement
07. Speed of Maturation, Personality,and Social Organization
	Speed of Maturation
	Mortality Rates
	Personality
	Self-Concept
	Family Functioning
	Mental Durability
	Law Abidingness
	Social Organization
	Racial Rankings
	Other Variables
08. Sexual Potency, Hormones, and AIDS
	Reproductive Potency
	Sexual Anatomy
	Sex Hormones
	Intercourse Frequency and Attitudes
	The Kinsey Data
	AIDS
09. Genes Plus Environment
	Genetic Weights Predict Racial Differences
	Adoption Studies
	Generalizing Heritabilities
	Regression to the Mean
	Between versus Within Family Effects
	Race versus Social Class
	Gene-Culture Coevolution
10. Life-History Theory
	Reproductive Strategies
	r-K Reproductive Strategies
	r-K Strategies Within Species
	K and Hominid Life Histories
	Race Differences in r-K Strategies
11. Out of Africa
	Racial Origins
	Genetic Evidence
	Paleontological Evidence
	Archaeological Evidence
	Linguistic Evidence
	Behavioral Evidence
	Racial Differentiation
	K-Selection and Brain Size
	Agriculture and the Modern Era
12. Challenges and Rejoinders
	Is Race a Useful Concept?
	Are the Race Differences as Described?
	Aggregation versus Deconstruction
	Aggregation and Brain Size
	Aggregation and Crime
	Aggregation and Reproductive Behavior
	Aggregation and Other Variables
	Is the Genetic Evidence Flawed?
	Is r-K Theory Correct?
	Are Environmental Explanations Sufficient?
	Is Race Science Immoral?
13. Conclusions and Discussion
	The Main Findings
	Reproductive Strategies
	An African Origin
	Genes in Addition to Environment
	Generalizing the r-K Formulation
	Biological Mediators
	The Fertility Paradox
Afterword
	Bell Curves
	The g Factor
	Brain Size and Cognitive Ability
	Race Differences in Brain Size
	Heritability
	Black Heritabilities
	Genetic Similarity Theory
	Crime
	Sexual Behavior and AIDS
	But Do Races Exist?
	Testosterone
	r-K Reproductive Strategies
	Out of Africa
	Progress in Evolution?
	Conclusion
	References
Glossary
References
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	Y
	Z
Author Index
Subject Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Race, Evolution,
and Behavior:
A Life History Perspective

T h i r d E d i t i o n

J. Philippe Rushton

Page 2

Commentary on J. Philippe Rushton’s
Race, Evolution, and Behavior

“(An) incendiary thesis....that separate races of human beings evolved different
reproductive strategies to cope with different environments and that these
strategies led to physical differences in brain size and hence in intelligence.
Human beings who evolved in the warm but highly unpredictable environment
of Africa adopted a strategy of high reproduction, while human beings who
migrated to the hostile cold of Europe and northern Asia took to producing fewer
children but nurturing them more carefully.”

—Malcolm W. Browne, New York Times Book Review

“Rushton is a serious scholar who has assembled serious data. Consider just one
example: brain size. The empirical reality, verified by numerous modem studies,
including several based on magnetic resonance imaging, is that a significant and
substantial relationship does exist between brain size and measured intelligence
after body size is taken into account and that the races do have different
distributions of brain size.”

—Charles Murray, Afterword to The Bell Curve

“Describes hundreds of studies worldwide that show a consistent pattern of
human racial differences in such characteristics as intelligence, brain size, genital
size, strength of sex drive, reproductive potency, industriousness, sociability, and
rule following. On each of these variables, the groups are aligned in the order:
Orientals, Caucasians, Blacks.”

—Mark Snyderman, National Review

"Rushton's Race, Evolution, and Behavior, which is about race differences in IQ
and cranial capacity, is an attempt to understand these differences in terms of
life-history evolution....Perhaps there ultimately will be some serious
contribution from the traditional smoke-and-mirrors social science treatment of
IQ, but for now Rushton's framework is essentially the only game in town."

— Henry Harpending, Evolutionary Anthropology

“The remarkable resistance to racial science in our times has led to comparisons
with the inquisition of Rome, active during the Renaissance.... Astronomy and
the physical sciences had their Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo a few centuries
ago; society and the welfare of humanity is the better for it today. In a directly
analogous fashion, psychology and the social sciences today have their Darwin,
Galton, and Rushton.”

—Glayde Whitney, Contemporary Psychology

Page 199

overrepresented among persons arrested for most white-collar offenses. For
example, in 1980 blacks made up about one-third of those arrested for fraud,
forgery, counterfeiting, and receiving stolen property, and about one-fourth of
those arrested for embezzlement. Blacks are underrepresented only among
those white-collar offenses that ordinarily require, for their commission, ac­
cess to high status occupations (tax fraud, securities violations).

A similar racial pattern is to be found in other industrialized Western coun­
tries. In London, England, for example, while comprising 13 percent of the
population, African-descended people account for 50 percent of the crime
(Daily Telegraph, March 24,1983). The dark-skinned Caucasoids from Paki­
stan, India, and Bangladesh, however, who are also recent immigrants, do not
appear to be higher in crime than white populations. In Toronto, Canada, un­
official figures suggest that recent Afro-Caribbean immigrants, while making
up 2 to 5 percent of the population, are responsible for between 32 and 40
percent of the crime (The Globe and Mail, February 8, 1989). Immigrants
from the Pacific Rim, however, are underrepresented in crime.

In the 1920s the underrepresentation of the Chinese in the U.S. crime fig­
ures led American criminologists to consider the ghetto as a place that pro­
tected members from the disruptive tendencies of the outside society (J. Q.
Wilson & Hermstein, 1985: 473). Among blacks the ghetto is said to foster
crime. Detailed analyses made in the United States show that currently one in
four black males between the ages of 20 and 29 is either in jail, on probation,
or on parole and that this is not due to bias in the criminal justice system
(Klein, Petersilia, & Turner, 1990).

I have found that, internationally, African and Caribbean countries report
twice the amount of violent crime (murder, rape, and serious assault) as do
European countries and three times more than do countries from the Pacific
Rim (Rushton, 1990b). Summing crime data from the International Police
Organization (INTERPOL) and averaging across years gives figures per
100,000 population, respectively, of 142, 74, and 43. These proportionate ra­
cial differences are similar to those found using statistics from within the United
States. It is worth considering these data in more detail.

I consulted the published statistics provided by INTERPOL (Rushton,
1990b). INTERPOL’s crime statistics for 1983-1984 and 1985-1986 provided
data on nearly 100 countries in 14 crime categories. Because the figures for
some crimes are highly dependent on a country’s laws (e.g., sex offenses) or
on availability (e.g., theft of motor cars), I focused on the three most serious
crimes, which were relatively well defined: murder, rape, and serious assault.

I collated the figures per 100,000 population for 1984 and 1986 (or the
next nearest year) and aggregated across the three categories (see Table 7.3).
Countries for which data could not be found in all three categories were
dropped. Countries were then grouped by primary racial composition with
only Fiji and Papua, New Guinea being eliminated due to uncertainty as to

158 Race, Evolution, and Behavior

Page 200

Speed of Maturation, Personality, and Social Organization 159

TABLE 7.3
International Crime Rates per 100,000 Population for Countries

Categorized by Predominant Racial type

Year/
racial type

Number of
countries

Homicide Rape
Serious
assault Total

Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD

1984
Mongoloid 9 8.0 14.1 3.7 2.6 37.1 46.8 48.8 50.3
Caucasoid 40 4.4 4.3 6.3 6.5 61.6 66.9 72.4 72.5
Negroid 22 8.7 11.8 12.8 15.3 110.8 124.6 132.3 139.3

F(2,69) 1.92 3.99* 3.16* 3.59*
1986

Mongoloid 12 5.8 10.9 3.2 2.7 29.4 40.2 38.4 42.7
Caucasoid 48 4.5 4.6 6.2 6.3 65.7 91.2 76.4 95.4
Negroid 28 9.4 10.6 14.4 15.9 129.6 212.4 153.3 223.8

F(2,86) 3.04 7.54* 2.87 3.55*

Note. From Rushton (1990b, p. 320, Table 2). Copyright 1990 by the Canadian Criminal Justice
Association. Reprinted with permission.
* p < 0.05

their racial status. For 1984, complete data were available for 71 countries: 9
Mongoloid (including Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines), 40 Caucasoid
(including Arabic North Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America), and 22
Negroid (sub-Saharan Africa including Sudan and the Caribbean); for 1986,
complete data were available for 88 countries (12 Mongoloid, 48 Caucasoid,
and 28 Negroid).

Obviously the groupings shown in Table 7.3 do not represent in any sense
“pure types” and there is enormous racial and ethnic variation within almost
every country; moreover, each country undoubtedly differs in the procedures
used to collect and disseminate the crime figures. Certainly within each racial
grouping are to be found countries reporting both high and low crime rates.
The Philippines, for example, a country grouped as Mongoloid, reported one
of the highest homicide rates in the world, 43 per 100,000 in 1984; Togo, a
country grouped as Negroid, had the lowest reported crime rate in the world,
a “rounded down” 0 per 100,000 in all 3 crime categories in 1984.

Page 398

Subject Index 357

in humans, comparing races, xiii,
xv, 204-205, 209-216, 228,
230-231, 249, 262, 290-292

in humans, within races, xv, 209-
213, 264-274

see also, Life-histories
life-history characteristics, 199-216,

290
social class, 195
traits associated with, 203
twinning, 195

Race differences:
AIDS and sexually transmitted dis­

eases, 5,7-8,172,178-183,244,
261-262, 288-289

athletics, 9, 163
body type, 1,98,162-163,166-169,

216, 235, 238, 250-251, 255-
264, 271-273

brain size, xiii, 4-6,98,102,104-106,
108-111,113-133,161-162,195-
196,214,230-231,236,238-241,
245, 255, 259-260, 282-284

civilization 96-101, 141-144, 245,
crime, xiii, 4-5,9,98,100,109,155,

157-162, 191, 197, 214-216,
236-237, 241-243, 245, 251,
261, 287

distributional overlap, xiv, xv, 4, 8-
11,105,131-138,145-146,235-
241

evolutionary origins, xiii, 1-7, 97-
99, 103-105, 107-109, 277

family functioning, xiii, 4-5, 98,
155-157, 185, 251, 261

fertility, xiii, 4,6,94,161,165-166,
244, 251

gamete production, see hormones,
sexual behavior, twinning

genetic versus environmental causes
of, 2, 8-9,97-99,103,185-198,
263-264, 282, 287

genitalia, 5, 98, 103-104, 150, 162,
166-169, 177, 213-214, 231,
236, 243-244, 262

gestation, 147, 252, 262
health and longevity, 4-5, 8, 150-

152, 157, 170, 191, 195, 197,
251-252, 255

hormones, xiii, 5, 8, 155, 162-163,
166, 169-170, 215, 255, 263,
271-273

infant mortality, 251-252, 254 (see
also health and longevity)

intelligence, xiii, 4-7, 9-11, 30-32,
97-98, 100, 103, 113, 133-146,
161-162, 185-198, 214, 228-
231,245-248,260,277-280,283

maturation speed, xiii, 4-6,99,106,
125, 147-150, 170-173, 214,
236, 245, 259-260, 290-291

nutrition, 255
odor, 162
parenting, 98, 155-157, 231, 252,

255
pattern of, xiii, 4-8,10,97,99,113—

185, 236, 259, 262, 277, 291
personality, xiii, 4-5, 10, 97-98,

101, 152-155, 161-162, 191-
192, 231, 241, 245, 255, 260-
261, 279

rape, 158-159, 215, 255, 261, 287
rhythm, 98, 100-101, 162
self-concept, 154-155
sexual behavior, xiii-xiv, 4-7, 98,

101, 103-104, 155-156, 161-
162, 165-178, 196-197, 214,
231,236,242-245,251,261,288

sex-ratio, 251-252
socioeconomic/educational attain­

ment, 9, 30, 97-98, 103, 133,
141-146, 175-178, 195-198,
252, 278

social oiganization, xiii, 5, 98-101,
103-104, 133, 141-144, 160-
161, 231, 236

suicide, 151-152
temperament (see personality)
theories of:

African origin, xiii, 3, 6, 107-
109, 217-219, 291-292

bible, 92, 103-105, 107
climate, 250-251
discrimination, 7-8, 252
Freudian, 250
hormonal, 271-273
nutrition, 254-255
paternal provisioning, 255

Page 399

358 Race, Evolution, and Behavior

sex-ratio, 251
stress, 251-253
r-K reproductive strategies, xiii,

xv, 204-205, 209-216, 228,
230-231,249-255,262,290-
291

see also Human origins
twinning, xiii, 4-6, 165-166,

195, 214
voice depth, 163

Racism:
African, 92, 245, 250
anti, 2-3, 7-8, 14, 108, 110-111,

115, 235-236, 243-245, 256-
257, 294-295

Chinese, 92-93
European, 92-94
genetic basis of, 1, 69, 85-94, 211,

256-257, 286-287
Islamic, 96-99
Jewish, 92
racial differences and, 30-31, 101-

111, 115, 235
Reproductive strategies

(.See r-K reproductive strategies,
Life-histories)

S
Sex differences:

AIDS, 179-183
aggression, 22, 241, 287
brain size, 110, 113, 118, 122-124,

127-132, 239, 241
intelligence, 132

sexual behavior, 171-175, 179-183
Sexuality:

behavior genetics, 57, 65
correlates, 252-254

Social learning, xvii, 16-17, 28, 89
Social Science orthodoxy, 2,3,7-9,13-

17, 28
Sociobiology, xvii, 1, 9,13-15
Socioeconomic status:

aggression, 22, 241, 269
brain size, 106, 113, 120, 122, 270
crime, 197, 241, 265-267, 269
health, 197, 265, 268
intelligence, 31-32, 34, 103, 144-

146, 196, 265, 269-270
personality, 269
puberty, 252-254, 264
sexual behavior, 175-178,196-197,

265-267, 270
twinning, 197, 265-267

T
Twins and twinning, xiii, 4,6,265-266

V
Values:

assortative mating, 69-70
behavioral genetics, 58
friendship similarity, 68-69

W
Whites, see Caucasoids

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