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TitleReinhart Koselleck Critique and Crises Enlightenment and the Pathogenesis of Modern Society 1
TagsAge Of Enlightenment Jürgen Habermas Utopia Morality Absolute Monarchy
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Table of Contents
                            Contents
Foreword
Preface to the English Edition
Introduction
I The Political Structure of Absolutism as the Precondition of Enlightenment
1. The Absolutist State, Raison d'Etat and the Emergence of the Apolitical Sphere (Barclay, d'Aubigne)
2. Hobbesian Rationality and the Origins of Enlightenment
3. The Exclusion of Natural Law Morality from International Politics and the Concept of War between States as a Precondition of Moral Progress
Part II The Self-Image of the Enlightenment Thinkers as a Response to their Situation within the Absolutist State
4. Locke's Law of Private Censure and its Significance for the Emergence of the Bourgeoisie
5. The Creation of Indirect Countervailing Powers and the Arcanum of Politics
6. The Proliferation of Indirect Power and the Schism of Morals and Politics
7. The Political Function of the Lodges and the Plans of the Illuminati
8. The Process of Criticism (Schiller, Simon, Bayle, Voltaire, Diderot and the 'Encyclopédic', Kant)
9. The Philosophy of Progress and its Prognosis of Revolution
10. The Recognition of the Crisis and the Emergence of a Moral Totalism as a Response to Political Absolutism (Turgot)
11. Crisis, Consciousness and Historical Construction (Rousseau, Diderot, Raynal, Paine)
Excursus
Bibliography
Indexes
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Studies in Contemporary German Social Thought
Thomas McCarthy, General Editor

Theodor W. Adorno, Against Epistemology: A Metacritique
Theodor W. Adorno, Prisms

Karl-Otto Apel, Understanding and Explanation: A Transcendental-Pragmatic
Perspective

Richard J. Bernstein, editor, Habermas and Modernity
Ernst Bloch, Natural Law and Human Dignity

Ernst Bloch, The Principle of Hope
Ernst Bloch, The Utopian Function of Art and Literature: Selected Essays

Hans Blumenberg, The Genesis of the Copernican World
Hans Blumenberg, The Legitimacy of the Modern Age

Hans Blumenberg, Work on Myth
Helmut Dubiel, Theory and Politics: Studies in the Development of Critical

Theory
John Forester, editor, Critical Theory and Public Life

David Frisby, Fragments of Modernity: Theories of Modernity in the Work of
Sirnmel, Kracauer and Benjamin

Hans-Georg Gadamer, Philosophical Apprenticeships
Hans-Georg Gadamer, Reason in the Age of Science

Jurgen Habermas, The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity: Twelve Lectures
Jurgen Habermas, Philosophical-Political Profiles

Jurgen Habermas, editor, Observations on "The Spiritual Situation of the Age"
Hans Joas, G.H. Mead: A Contemporary Re-examination of His Thought

Reinhart Koselleck, Critique and Crisis: Enlightenment and the Pathogenesis of
Modern Society

Reinhart Koselleck, Futures Past: On the Semantics of Historical Time
Herbert Marcuse, Hegel's Ontology and the Theory of Historicity

Claus Offe, Contradictions of the Welfare State
Claus Offe, Disorganized Capitalism: Contemporary Transformations of Work and

Politics
Helmut Peukert, Science, Action, and Fundamental Theology.' Toward a Theology

of Communicative Action
Joachim Ritter, Hegel and the French. Revolution: Essays on the Philosophy of

Right
Alfred Schmidt, History and Structure: An Essay on Hegelian-Marxist and

Structuralist Theories of History
Dennis Schmidt, The Ubiquity of' the Finite: Hegel, Heidegger, and the

Entitlements of Philosophy
Carl Schmitt, The Crisis of Parliamentary Democracy

Carl Schmitt, Political Romanticism
Carl Schmitt, Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty

Michael Theunnisen, The Other: Studies in the Social Ontology of Husserl,
Heidegger, Sartre, and Buber

Gary Smith, editor, On Walter Benjamin: Critical Essays and Recollections
Ernst Tugendhat, Self-Consciousness and Self-Determination

Mark Warren, Nietzsche and Political Thought

Page 2

Critique and Crisis

Enlightenment and the Pathogenesis of
Modern Society

REINHART KOSELLECK

The MIT Press

Cambridge, Massachusetts

Page 107

CHAPTER 8

The Process of Criticism
(Schiller, Simon, Bay le, Voltaire, Diderot and

the 'Encyclopedie , Kant)

The stages of the indirect assumption of power recorded in the
annals of the lodge followed the analogous pattern of the Republic
of Letters. The social integration of the bourgeois elite in the lodges
paralleled the active anti-State litigation in the republic of Letters,
litigation which raised and attempted to settle questions of guilt. We
find a clear road leading from self-defence to ruling claim, a course
that sheds light on the historical significance of the separation of
internal and external. If the line drawn between morality and
politics was the precondition and expression of the indirect as-
sumption of power, we now find that this very drawing of lines
formed the basis of the ostensibly non-political criticism. Just as the
Masons, by virtue of the secret, kept aloof from the State, initially in
order to elude its influence but later in order, through that very sep-
aration, to occupy the State seemingly non-politically, so criticism
initially kept aloof from the State so that later, through that very
separation it could, seemingly neutrally, extend its reach to the State
and subject it to its judgement. Criticism, as we shall see, became
the victim of its ostensible neutrality; it turned into hypocrisy.

`The jurisdiction of the stage begins at the point where the sphere
of secular laws ends." Thus Friedrich Schiller in an address to the
Palatinate German Society at Mannheim in the summer of 1784 in
connection with the question of the moral role of the legitimate

1. Schiller, Sarntliche Werke, XI, 91.

98

Page 108

The Process of Criticism 99

theatre. Both the theme and the question were in the tradition of
eighteenth-century art and dramatic criticism, from Pope's Essay on
Criticism through Diderot's l'art pour la morale to Lessing's Ham-
burgische Dramaturgie.

Schiller's answer though he was to go further takes its place
alongside these predecessors. Its succinct conclusion states that it
was the task of the stage to prepare man for one specific emotion,
that of 'being human'.2 The simplicity and clarity of this answer
to which we shall return is based on a similarly simple and
unambiguous antithesis which contrasts existing laws with the new,
dramatic jurisdiction acting in the name of human feelings. Schiller
draws a conceptual line between the two areas carefully and in such
a way as to equate the end of secular laws with the beginning of the
new justice. 'It punishes a thousand vices which [secular justice]
tolerates with impunity while a thousand virtues kept secret by the
latter are acclaimed by the stage.'3 This is an assertion of mutual
exclusion: the Yes on the one side is tantamount to the No on the
other, and vice versa. At the same time, the counterpoint makes for
the promising conclusion that the actual and spatial conception
the boundary line between stage and Stateshould also be con-
ceived of temporally: as the replacement of the old jurisdiction by a
new, more just dispensation of justice.

This conceptual dualism put Schiller squarely within the frame-
work of his predecessors. Lessing furnished the immediate model
when he defended himself against the charge of glorifying vice on
the stage. At the opening of the Hamburg Theatre, he had asked:

If he whom no law punishes or can punish
The sly wrongdoer, the bloody tyrant,
If he oppresses innocence, who dares protect it?
Who? The one who now wields the dagger, the lash,
Intrepid art . .4

Proclamations of this sort were not apparently confined to the
world of the theatre, nor were they an expression of aesthetic
concerns; rather, art emerged as the antithesis of contemporary
government, a manifestation of the eighteenth-century intellectual

2. Ibid., 100.
3. Ibid., 92.
4. Lessing, Samtliche Schriten, IX, 207, 311.

Page 213

204 Index

reason, 9, 25, 31f.,34, 38, 46, 107f., 147ff., 147, 149, 154, 162-4, 183f.
Illf., 116 State, 101., 15ff., 23ff., 30f., 35, 37f.,

Republic of Letters, 62, 96, 98-123, 40ff., 69, 72f., 81, 96, 127, 132, 139,
128, 175, 184

revolution, 5, 15,69f., 83f., 84f., 127,
133, 1351., 156, 159, 160f., 162ff.,
171, 176, 179, 181

secrecy, see mystery
society, 53ff., 57f., 62, 66f., 80, 83, 96,

122, 127, 138, 142, 162f., 169f., 174,
183

sovereignty, 18ff., 31f., 33-43,34, 35,
44, 75, 81, 110ff., 117ff., 129, 142ff.,

142, 162f.,168, 169, 183

totality, 28, 152ff.

Utopia/Utopianism, 5, 7, 9, 10ff., 47,
76, 88ff., 130ff., 132, 161, 167, 170,
182-5

war, 43f., 50
see also civil war

world, see globe

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