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Table of Contents
                            Public Speaking in the Twenty-First Century
1 Why Is Public Speaking Important?
	LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Everyday Public Speaking
2 The Process of Public Speaking
	LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Models of Public Speaking
Interactional Model of Public Speaking
Linear Model
Interactional Model
Dialogic Theory of Public Speaking
Dialogue vs. Monologue
Meanings Are in People, Not Words
Contexts and Social Situations
Physical Dimension
Temporal Dimension
Social-Psychological Dimension
Cultural Dimension
	KEY TAKEAWAYS
	EXERCISES
3 Chapter Exercises
	END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
	ANSWER KEY
Chapter 2
Ethics Matters: Understanding the Ethics of Public Speaking
	Ethics Today
	2.1 The Ethics Pyramid
		LEARNING OBJECTIVE
	Intent
	Means
	Ends
	Thinking through the Pyramid
		KEY TAKEAWAY
		EXERCISES
	2.2 Ethics in Public Speaking
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Communication Code of Ethics
		National Communication Association Credo for Ethical Communication
	Applying the NCA Credo to Public Speaking
	We Endorse Freedom of Expression, Diversity of Perspective, and Tolerance of Dissent to Achieve the Informed and Responsible Decision Making Fundamental to a Civil Society
	We Strive to Understand and Respect Other Communicators before Evaluating and Responding to Their Messages
	We Promote Access to Communication Resources and Opportunities as Necessary to Fulfill Human Potential and Contribute to the Well-Being of Families, Communities, and Society
	We Promote Communication Climates of Caring and Mutual Understanding That Respect the Unique Needs and Characteristics of
	Individual Communicators
	We Condemn Communication That Degrades Individuals and Humanity through Distortion, Intimidation, Coercion, and Violence and through the Expression of Intolerance and Hatred
	We Are Committed to the Courageous Expression of Personal Convictions in Pursuit of Fairness and Justice
	We Advocate Sharing Information, Opinions, and Feelings When Facing Significant Choices While Also Respecting Privacy and Confidentiality
	We Accept Responsibility for the Short- and Long-Term Consequences of Our Own Communication and Expect the Same of Others
	Practicing Ethical Public Speaking
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	2.3 Free Speech
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	What Is Free Speech?
	The First Amendment to the Constitution
		EXERCISES
	2.4 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
Chapter 3
Speaking Confidently
	Battling Nerves and the Unexpected
	3.1 What Is Communication Apprehension?
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Definition of Communication Apprehension
	Physiological Symptoms of Communication Apprehension
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	3.2 All Anxiety Is Not the Same: Sources of Communication Apprehension
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Trait Anxiety
	Context Anxiety
	Formality
	Uncertainty
	Novelty
	Audience Anxiety
	Situational Anxiety
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISE
	3.3 Reducing Communication Apprehension
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Speech-Related Considerations
	Think Positively
	Reducing Anxiety through Preparation
	Analyze Your Audience
	Clearly Organize Your Ideas
	Adapt Your Language to the Oral Mode
	Practice in Conditions Similar to Those You Will Face When Speaking
	Watch What You Eat
	Reducing Nervousness during Delivery
	Anticipate the Reactions of Your Body
	Focus on the Audience, Not on Yourself
	Maintain Your Sense of Humor
	Stress Management Techniques
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	3.4 Coping with the Unexpected
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Speech Content Issues
	Technical Difficulties
	External Distractions
		KEY TAKEAWAY
		EXERCISES
	3.5 Chapter Exercises
		TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF COMMUNICATION APPREHENSION
Chapter 4
The Importance of Listening
	4.1 Listening vs. Hearing
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Listening or Hearing
	Benefits of Listening
	You Become a Better Student
	You Become a Better Friend
	People Will Perceive You as Intelligent and Perceptive
	Good Listening Can Help Your Public Speaking
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISE
	4.2 Listening Styles
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	People
	Action
	Content
	Time
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	4.3 Why Listening Is Difficult
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Noise
	Physical Noise
	Psychological Noise
	Physiological Noise
	Semantic Noise
	Attention Span
	Receiver Biases
	Listening or Receiver Apprehension
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	4.4 Stages of Listening
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Receiving
	Understanding
	Remembering
	Evaluating
	Responding
	Formative Feedback
	Summative Feedback
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	4.5 Listening Critically
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Six Ways to Improve Your Critical Listening
	Recognizing the Difference between Facts and Opinions
	Uncovering Assumptions
	Be Open to New Ideas
	Rely on Reason and Common Sense
	Relate New Ideas to Old Ones
	Take Notes
	Listening Ethically
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	4.6 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
Chapter 5
Audience Analysis
	What Is an Audience Analysis?
	5.1 Why Conduct an Audience Analysis?
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Acknowledge the Audience
	Choose a Worthwhile Topic
	Clarity
	Controversial Topics Are Important and Risky
	Adapt Your Speech to Audience Needs
	Consider Audience Diversity
	Avoid Offending Your Audience
	Ethical Speaking Is Sincere Speaking
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	5.2 Three Types of Audience Analysis
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Demographic Analysis
	Age
	Gender
	Culture
	Religion
	Group Membership
	Education
	Occupation
	Psychographic Analysis
	Preexisting Notions about Your Topic
	Preexisting Notions about You
	Situational Analysis
	Audience Size
	Occasion
	Voluntariness of Audience
	Physical Setting
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	5.3 Conducting Audience Analysis
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Direct Observation
	Interviews and Surveys
	Focus Groups
	Using Existing Data about Your Audience
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	5.4 Using Your Audience Analysis
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Prepare Content with Your Audience in Mind
	Adjusting Your Speech Based on Your Analysis
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	5.5 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
Chapter 6
Finding a Purpose and Selecting a Topic
	Finding Your Purpose
	6.1 General Purposes of Speaking
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	To Inform
	Why We Share Knowledge
	Common Types of Informative Topics
	Sample: Jessy Ohl’s Informative Speech
	To Persuade
	Why We Persuade
	Persuasion: Behavior versus Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs
	Sample: Jessy Ohl’s Persuasive Speech
	To Entertain
	Why We Entertain
	Common Forms of Entertainment Topics
	Sample: Adam Fink’s Entertainment Speech
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	6.2 Selecting a Topic
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Common Constraints of Public Speaking
	Purpose
	Audience
	Context
	Time Frame
	Selecting a Broad Subject Area
	Narrowing Your Topic
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	6.3 What If You Draw a Blank?
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Conduct a Personal Inventory
	Use Finding Aids
	Best-Seller Lists
	Polling Organizations
	Media Outlets
	The Internet
	Poll Your Audience for Interests and Needs
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	6.4 Specific Purposes
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Getting Specific
	Your Specific Statement of Purpose
	Basic Tips for Creating Specific Purposes
	Audience, Audience, Audience
	Matching the Rhetorical Situation
	Make It Clear
	Don’t Double Up
	Can I Really Do This in Five to Seven Minutes?
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	6.5 Conclusion
	6.6 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
Chapter 7
Researching Your Speech
	Libraries and Librarians Are Our Friends
	7.1 What Is Research?
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Primary Research
	Surveys You Conduct
	Interviews You Conduct
	Secondary Research
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	7.2 Developing a Research Strategy
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Alloting Time
	Research Time
	Speech Preparation Time
	Determining Your Needs
	Finding Resources
	Nonacademic Information Sources
	Books
	General-Interest Periodicals
	Special-Interest Periodicals
	Newspapers and Blogs
	Encyclopedias
	Websites
	Academic Information Sources
	Scholarly Books
	Scholarly Articles
	Computerized Databases
	Scholarly Information on the Web
	Tips for Finding Information Sources
	Create a Research Log
	Start with Background Information
	Search Your Library’s Computers
	Learn to Skim
	Read Bibliographies/Reference Pages
	Ask for Help
	Evaluating Resources
	What Is the Date of Publication?
	Who Is the Author?
	Who Is the Publisher?
	Is It Academic or Nonacademic?
	What Is the Quality of the Bibliography/Reference Page?
	Do People Cite the Work?
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	7.3 Citing Sources
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Why Citing Is Important
	APA versus MLA Source Citations
	APA Citations
	MLA Citations
	Citing Sources in a Speech
	Using Sources Ethically
	Avoid Plagiarism
	Avoid Academic Fraud
	Don’t Mislead Your Audience
	Give Author Credentials
	Use Primary Research Ethically
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	7.4 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
Chapter 8
Supporting Ideas and Building Arguments
	8.1 Using Research as Support
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Why We Use Support
	To Clarify Content
	To Add Credibility
	Accuracy
	Authority
	Currency
	Objectivity
	To Add Vividness
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	8.2 Exploring Types of Support
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Facts and Statistics
	Definitions
	Lexical Definitions
	Persuasive Definitions
	Stipulative Definitions
	Theoretical Definitions
	Examples
	Positive Examples
	Negative Examples
	Nonexamples
	Best Examples
	Narratives
	Informative Narratives
	Persuasive Narratives
	Entertaining Narratives
	Testimony
	Expert Testimony
	Eyewitness Testimony
	Analogies
	Figurative Analogies
	Literal Analogies
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	8.3 Using Support and Creating Arguments
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Understanding Arguments
	Sifting Through Your Support
	Use a Variety of Support Types
	Choose Appropriate Forms of Support
	Check for Relevance
	Don’t Go Overboard
	Don’t Manipulate Your Support
	Using Support within Your Speech
	Forms of Speech Support
	Quotations
	Paraphrases
	Summaries
	Numerical Support
	Pictographic Support
	Is Your Support Adequate?
	Use a Reverse Outline
	Support Your Claims
	Oral Presentation
	Setup
	Execution
	Analysis
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	8.4 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
	9.1 The Importance of an Introduction
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Gain Audience Attention and Interest
	State the Purpose of Your Speech
	Establish Credibility
	Provide Reasons to Listen
	Preview Main Ideas
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	9.2 The Attention-Getter: The First Step of an Introduction
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Reference to Subject
	Reference to Audience
	Quotation
	Reference to Current Events
	Historical Reference
	Anecdote
	Startling Statement
	Question
	Humor
	Personal Reference
	Reference to Occasion
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	9.3 Putting It Together: Steps to Complete Your Introduction
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Link to Topic
	Reasons to Listen
	Appearing Credible
	Thesis Statement
	Basic Functions of a Thesis Statement
	Express Your Specific Purpose
	Provide a Way to Organize Your Main Points
	Make Your Research More Effective
	Enhance Your Delivery
	How to Write a Thesis Statement
	Choose Your Topic
	Narrow Your Topic
	Put Your Topic into a Sentence
	Add Your Argument, Viewpoint, or Opinion
	Use the Thesis Checklist
	Preview of Speech
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	9.4 Analyzing an Introduction
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
		Smart Dust Introduction
		Need More Speech Examples?
	9.5 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
		Introduction Worksheet
Chapter 10
Creating the Body of a Speech
	10.1 Determining Your Main Ideas
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	What Is Your Specific Purpose?
	From Specific Purpose to Main Points
	How Many Main Points Do I Need?
	Narrowing Down Your Main Points
	Helpful Hints for Preparing Your Main Points
	Uniting Your Main Points
	Keeping Your Main Points Separate
	Balancing Main Points
	Creating Parallel Structure for Main Points
	Maintaining Logical Flow of Main Points
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	10.2 Using Common Organizing Patterns
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Categorical/Topical
	Comparison/Contrast
	Spatial
	Chronological
	Biographical
	Causal
	Problem-Cause-Solution
	Psychological
	Selecting an Organizational Pattern
		KEY TAKEAWAY
		EXERCISES
	10.3 Keeping Your Speech Moving
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Transitions between Main Points
	Internal Previews
	Internal Summaries
	Signposts
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	10.4 Analyzing a Speech Body
		LEARNING OBJECTIVE
		Smart Dust Speech Body
	10.5 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
Chapter 11
Concluding with Power
	Almost to the Finish Line
	11.1 Why Conclusions Matter
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Signals the End
	Aids Audience’s Memory of Your Speech
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	11.2 Steps of a Conclusion
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Restatement of the Thesis
	Review of Main Points
	Concluding Device
	Conclude with a Challenge
	Conclude with a Quotation
	Conclude with a Summary
	Conclude by Visualizing the Future
	Conclude with an Appeal for Action
	Conclude by Inspiration
	Conclude with Advice
	Conclude by Proposing a Solution
	Conclude with a Question
	Conclude with a Reference to Audience
	Informative versus Persuasive Conclusions
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	11.3 Analyzing a Conclusion
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Sample Conclusion: Smart Dust
	Your Turn
	11.4 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
	12.1 Why Outline?
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Tests Scope of Content
	Tests Logical Relation of Parts
	Tests Relevance of Supporting Ideas
	Test the Balance and Proportion of the Speech
	Serves as Notes during the Speech
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	12.2 Types of Outlines
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Working Outline
	Full-Sentence Outline
	Speaking Outline
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	12.3 Using Outlining for Success
		LEARNING OBJECTIVE
	Singularity
	Consistency
	Adequacy
	Uniformity
	Parallelism
		KEY TAKEAWAY
		EXERCISES
	12.4 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
	13.1 Oral versus Written Language
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Basic Functions of Language
	Denotative Meaning
	Conotative Meaning
	Twelve Ways Oral and Written Language Differ
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	13.2 Using Language Effectively
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Use Appropriate Language
	As with anything in life, there are positive and negative ways of using language. One of the first concepts a speaker needs to think about when looking at language use is appropriateness. By appropriate, we mean whether the language is suitable or fitting for ourselves, as the speaker; our audience; the speaking context; and the speech itself.
	Appropriate for the Speaker
	Appropriate for the Audience
	Appropriate for the Context
	Appropriate for the Topic
	Use Vivid Language
	Imagery
	Concreteness
	Simile
	Metaphor
	Rhythm
	Parallelism
	Repetition
	Alliteration
	Assonance
	Use Inclusive Language
	Gender-Specific Language
	Generic “He”
	Use of “Man”
	Gender-Typed Jobs
	Ethnic Identity
	Sexual Orientation
	Disability
	Use Familiar Language
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	13.3 Six Elements of Language
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Clarity
	Economy
	Obscenity
	Obscure Language/Jargon
	Power
	Variety
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	13.4 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
Chapter 14
Delivering the Speech
	14.1 Four Methods of Delivery
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Impromptu Speaking
	Extemporaneous Speaking
	Speaking from a Manuscript
	Speaking from Memory
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	14.2 Speaking Contexts That Affect Delivery
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Using Lecterns
	Speaking in a Small or Large Physical Space
	Speaking Outdoors
	Using a Microphone
	Audience Size
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	14.3 Using Notes Effectively
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	The Purpose of Speaker Notes
	Key Tips for Using Notes
	Include Only Key Words
	Hold Your Notes Naturally
	Prepare Notecards to Trigger Recall
	Write in Large Letters
	Using Notecards Effectively
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	14.4 Practicing for Successful Speech Delivery
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	What Is Good Delivery?
	Conversational Style
	Eye Contact
	Effective Use of Vocalics
	Volume
	Rate
	Pitch
	Pauses
	Vocal Variety
	Pronunciation
	Effective Physical Manipulation
	Posture
	Body Movement
	Facial Expressions
	Dress
	Self-Presentation
	Variety
	Practice Effectively
	Seek Input from Others
	Use Audio and/or Video to Record Yourself
	Good Delivery Is a Habit
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	14.5 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
Chapter 15
Presentation Aids: Design and Usage
	What Are Presentation Aids?
	15.1 Functions of Presentation Aids
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Improving Audience Understanding
	Clarifying
	Emphasizing
	Aiding Retention and Recall
	Adding Variety and Interest
	Enhancing a Speaker’s Credibility
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	15.2 Types of Presentation Aids
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Charts
	Statistical Charts
	Sequence-of-Steps Charts
	Decision Trees
	Graphs
	Line Graph
	Bar Graph
	Pie Graph
	Representations
	Diagrams
	Maps
	Photographs and Drawings
	Video or Audio Recordings
	Objects or Models
	People and Animals
	Animals as Presentation Aids
	Speaker as Presentation Aid
	Other People as Presentation Aids
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	15.3 Media to Use for Presentation Aids
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Computer-Based Media
	Audiovisual Media
	Low-Tech Media
	Chalk or Dry-Erase Board
	Flipchart
	Poster Board or Foam Board
	Handouts
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	15.4 Tips for Preparing Presentation Aids
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Easily Seen or Heard by Your Audience
	Easily Handled
	Aesthetically Pleasing
	Tips for Text Aids
	Tips for Graphic Aids
	Rules for Computer Presentations
	Watch Your Font
	Don’t Write Everything Out
	Don’t Bow Down to the Software
	Slide Color
	Slide Movement
	Practice, Practice, Practice
	Always Have a Backup Plan
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	15.5 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
Chapter 16
Informative Speaking
	Welcome to Informative Speaking
	16.1 Informative Speaking Goals
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Why We Speak to Inform
	Making Information Clear and Interesting for the Audience
	Adjust Complexity to the Audience
	Avoid Unnecessary Jargon
	Create Concrete Images
	Keep Information Limited
	Link Current Knowledge to New Knowledge
	Make It Memorable
	Make It Relevant and Useful
	Personalize Your Content
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	16.2 Types of Informative Speeches
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Objects
	People
	Events
	Concepts
	Processes
	Developing Your Topic for the Audience
	Difficult Concepts or Language
	Difficult-to-Envision Processes or Structures
	Difficult to Understand because It’s Hard to Believe
	Ethics
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	16.3 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
Chapter 17
Persuasive Speaking
	Foundations of Persuasion
	17.1 Persuasion: An Overview
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	What Is Persuasion?
	Change Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs
	Change Behavior
	Why Persuasion Matters
	Theories of Persuasion
	Social Judgment Theory
	Cognitive Dissonance Theory
	Elaboration Likelihood Model
	Personal Relevance and Personal Involvement
	Accountability
	Personal Responsibility
	Incongruent Information
	Need for Cognition
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	17.2 Types of Persuasive Speeches
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Definitional Claims
	Factual Claims
	Policy Claims
	Gain Passive Agreement
	Gain Immediate Action
	Value Claims
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	17.3 Organizing Persuasive Speeches
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
	Attention
	Needs
	Satisfaction
	Visualization
	Action
	Problem-Cause-Solution
	Comparative Advantages
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	17.4 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
	18.1 Understanding Entertaining Speeches
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Be Prepared
	Be Adaptive to the Occasion
	Be Adaptive to Your Audience
	Be Mindful of the Time
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	18.2 Special-Occasion Speeches
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	Ceremonial Speaking
	Speeches of Introduction
	Speeches of Presentation
	Speeches of Acceptance
	Speeches of Dedication
	Toasts
	Roasts
	Eulogies
	Speeches of Farewell
	Inspirational Speaking
	Speeches to Ensure Goodwill
	Speeches for Public Relations
	Speeches of Justification
	Speeches of Apology
	Speeches for Commencements
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	18.3 Keynote Speaking
		LEARNING OBJECTIVES
	After-Dinner Speaking
	Motivational Speaking
		KEY TAKEAWAYS
		EXERCISES
	18.4 Chapter Exercises
		SPEAKING ETHICALLY
		END-OF-CHAPTER ASSESSMENT
		ANSWER KEY
	Chapter 19
	Your First Speech
		Learning Objectives
		19.1 The Public Speaking Pyramid
		19.2 Foundations of Public Speaking
		Speech Purpose
		To Inform
		To Persuade
		To Entertain
		Topic Selection
		Audience Analysis
		Who Are My Audience Members?
		What Characteristics Do My Audience Members Have?
		What Opinions and Beliefs Do They Have?
		What Do They Already Know?
		What Would They Be Interested in Knowing More About?
		What Do They Need?
		19.3 Speech Preparation
		Research
		Organization
		Introduction
		Body
		Conclusion
		Support
		19.4 Speech Practice
		Verbal Delivery
		Nonverbal Delivery
		Eye Contact
		Gestures
		Movement
		19.5 Conclusion
                        
Document Text Contents
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Instructions: For each of the following questions, check
either “yes” or “no.” Yes

N
o

7
. Does your thesis statement introduce a clear argument?

8
.

Does your thesis statement clearly indicate what your
audience should do, how your audience should think, or
how your audience should feel?

Scoring: For a strong thesis statement, all your answers should have
been “yes.”

Preview of Speech
The final part of an introduction contains a preview of the major points to be

covered within your speech. I’m sure we’ve all seen signs that have three cities

listed on them with the mileage to reach each city. This mileage sign is an

indication of what is to come. A preview works the same way. A preview

foreshadows what the main body points will be in the speech. For example, to

preview a speech on bullying in the workplace, one could say, “To understand

the nature of bullying in the modern workplace, I will first define what

workplace bullying is and the types of bullying, I will then discuss the common

characteristics of both workplace bullies and their targets, and lastly, I will

explore some possible solutions to workplace bullying.” In this case, each of

the phrases mentioned in the preview would be a single distinct point made in

the speech itself. In other words, the first major body point in this speech

would examine what workplace bullying is and the types of bullying; the

second major body point in this speech would discuss the common

characteristics of both workplace bullies and their targets; and lastly, the third

body point in this speech would explore some possible solutions to workplace

bullying.

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If you’re a new speaker, we cannot recommend highly enough the necessity of seeing how you look

while practicing your speech, either by videotaping yourself or by practicing in front of a full-length

mirror. People are often apprehensive about watching video tapes of themselves speaking, but the

best way to really see how you look while speaking is—well, literally to see how you look while

speaking. Think of it this way: If you have a distracting mannerism that you weren’t conscious of,

wouldn’t you rather become aware of it before your speech so that you can practice making an effort

to change that behavior?

Movement

The last major aspect of nonverbal communication we want to discuss here relates to how we move

while speaking. As with gesturing, new speakers tend to go to one of two extremes while speaking: no

movement or too much movement. On the one end of the spectrum, you have speakers who stand

perfectly still and do not move at all. These speakers may also find comfort standing behind a lectern,

which limits their ability to move in a comfortable manner. At the other end of the spectrum are

speakers who never stop moving. Some even start to pace back and forth while speaking. One of our

coauthors had a student who walked in a circle around the lectern while speaking, making the

audience slightly dizzy—and concerned that the student would trip and hurt herself in the process.

When it comes to movement, standing still and incessant pacing are both inappropriate for public

speaking. So how then should one move during a speech? Well, there are a range of different

thoughts on this subject. We recommend that you plan out when you’re going to move while

speaking. One common way is to purposefully move when you are making the transition from one

major point of your speech to the next. You might also take a step toward the audience at the

moment when you are intensifying a point, or take a step back when saying something like, “Let’s

back up and think about this for a moment.” However, we don’t recommend moving when discussing

important, complex ideas during your speech because the movement could be distracting and

prevent audience members from fully understanding your message. Overall, you should practice

movement so that it becomes comfortable for you and second nature.

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19.5 Conclusion

In this appendix, we have introduced you to the basics of effective public speaking. We discussed

building an appropriate foundation for your public speech, preparing your speech, and practicing

your speech. All the concepts discussed in this appendix will be more fully discussed in the other

chapters in this book. We hope this introduction will give you a boost as you start your journey

toward effective public speaking.

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