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TitleUltimate Survival Guide U S a Reference Edition
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Total Pages277
Document Text Contents
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TABLE OF CONTENTS...........................................................................................................2
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................5

SURVIVAL ACTIONS..........................................................................................................5
PATTERN FOR SURVIVAL..................................................................................................8

CHAPTER 2 - PSYCHOLOGY OF SURVIVAL............................................................................9
A LOOK AT STRESS...........................................................................................................9
NATURAL REACTIONS.....................................................................................................12
PREPARING YOURSELF...................................................................................................14

CHAPTER 3 - SURVIVAL PLANNING AND SURVIVAL KITS....................................................16
IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING...........................................................................................16
SURVIVAL KITS...............................................................................................................16

CHAPTER 4 - BASIC SURVIVAL MEDICINE...........................................................................19
REQUIREMENTS FOR MAINTENANCE OF HEALTH...........................................................19
MEDICAL EMERGENCIES.................................................................................................25
LIFESAVING STEPS.........................................................................................................25
BONE AND JOINT INJURY................................................................................................32
BITES AND STINGS.........................................................................................................35
WOUNDS........................................................................................................................39
ENVIRONMENTAL INJURIES.............................................................................................43
HERBAL MEDICINES........................................................................................................46

CHAPTER 5 - SHELTERS.....................................................................................................47
SHELTER SITE SELECTION..............................................................................................47
TYPES OF SHELTERS......................................................................................................48

CHAPTER 6 - WATER PROCUREMENT.................................................................................66
WATER SOURCES...........................................................................................................66
STILL CONSTRUCTION....................................................................................................73
WATER PURIFICATION....................................................................................................76
WATER FILTRATION DEVICES.........................................................................................77

CHAPTER 7 - FIRECRAFT....................................................................................................78
BASIC FIRE PRINCIPLES..................................................................................................78
SITE SELECTION AND PREPARATION..............................................................................78
FIRE MATERIAL SELECTION............................................................................................82
HOW TO BUILD A FIRE....................................................................................................83
HOW TO LIGHT A FIRE....................................................................................................84

CHAPTER 8 - FOOD PROCUREMENT...................................................................................88
ANIMALS FOR FOOD.......................................................................................................88
TRAPS AND SNARES.......................................................................................................94
KILLING DEVICES..........................................................................................................104
FISHING DEVICES.........................................................................................................105
PREPARATION OF FISH AND GAME FOR
COOKING AND STORAGE..............................................................................................112

CHAPTER 9 - SURVIVAL USE OF PLANTS..........................................................................118
EDIBILITY OF PLANTS...................................................................................................118
PLANTS FOR MEDICINE.................................................................................................128

CHAPTER 10 - POISONOUS PLANTS.................................................................................132
HOW PLANTS POISON..................................................................................................132
ALL ABOUT PLANTS......................................................................................................133
RULES FOR AVOIDING POISONOUS PLANTS.................................................................133

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FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

• Bushmaster (Lachesis mutus)

• Coral snake (Micrurus fulvius)

• Cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus)

• Fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox)

• Rattlesnake (Crotalus species)



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• Common adder (Vipers berus)

• Pallas' viper (Agkistrodon halys)

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• Boomslang (Dispholidus typus)

• Cobra (Naja species)

• Gaboon viper (Bitis gabonica)

• Green tree pit viper (Trimeresurus gramineus)

• Habu pit viper (Trimeresurus flavoviridis)

• Krait (Bungarus caeruleus)

• Malayan pit viper (Callaselasma rhodostoma)

• Mamba (Dendraspis species)

• Puff adder (Bitis arietans)
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• Rhinoceros viper (Bitis nasicornis)

• Russell' s viper (Vipera russellii)

• Sand viper (Cerastes vipera)

• Saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus)

• Wagler's pit viper (Trimeresurus wagleri)

POISONOUS SNAKES OF AUSTRALASIA

• Death adder (Acanthophis antarcticus)

• Taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus)

• Tiger snake (Notechis scutatus)

• Yellow-bellied sea snake (Pelamis platurus)

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The Gila monster and the Mexican beaded lizard are dangerous and poisonous lizards.

Gila Monster

The Gila monster (Heloderma suspectrum) of the American southwest, including Mexico, is
a large lizard with dark, highly textured skin marked by pinkish mottling. It averages 35 to
45 centimeters in length and has a thick, stumpy tail. Unlikely to bite unless molested, it
has a poisonous bite.

Mexican Beaded Lizard

The Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) resembles its relative, the Gila monster.
It has more uniform spots rather than bands of color (the Gila monster). It also is poisonous
and has a docile nature. You find it from Mexico to Central America.

Komodo Dragon

This giant lizard (Varanus komodoensis) grows to more than 3 meters in length and can be
dangerous if you try to capture it. This Indonesian lizard can weigh more than 135
kilograms.

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FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

that are very hard to detect, you must watch for symptoms in fellow survivors. Your
surroundings will provide valuable clues to the presence of chemical agents; for example,
dead animals, sick people, or people and animals displaying abnormal behavior.
Your sense of smell may alert you to some chemical agents, but most will be odorless. The
odor of newly cut grass or hay may indicate the presence of choking agents. A smell of
almonds may indicate blood agents.
Sight will help you detect chemical agents. Most chemical agents in the solid or liquid state
have some color. In the vapor state, you can see some chemical agents as a mist or thin
fog immediately after the bomb or shell bursts. By observing for symptoms in others and by
observing delivery means, you may be able to have some warning of chemical agents.
Mustard gas in the liquid state will appear as oily patches on leaves or on buildings.
The sound of enemy munitions will give some clue to the presence of chemical weapons.
Muffled shell or bomb detonations are a good indicator.
Irritation in the nose or eyes or on the skin is an urgent warning to protect your body from
chemical agents. Additionally, a strange taste in food, water, or cigarettes may serve as a
warning that they have been contaminated.

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As a survivor, always use the following general steps, in the order listed, to protect yourself
from a chemical attack:

• Use protective equipment.

• Give quick and correct self-aid when contaminated.

• Avoid areas where chemical agents exist.

• Decontaminate your equipment and body as soon as possible.

Your protective mask and overgarment are the key to your survival. Without these, you
stand very little chance of survival. You must take care of these items and protect them
from damage. You must practice and know correct self-aid procedures before exposure to
chemical agents. The detection of chemical agents and the avoidance of contaminated
areas is extremely important to your survival. Use whatever detection kits may be available
to help in detection. Since you are in a survival situation, avoid contaminated areas at all
costs. You can expect no help should you become contaminated. If you do become
contaminated, decontaminate yourself as soon as possible using proper procedures.


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If you find yourself in a contaminated area, try to move out of the area as fast as possible.
Travel crosswind or upwind to reduce the time spent in the downwind hazard area. If you
cannot leave the area immediately and have to build a shelter, use normal shelter
construction techniques, with a few changes. Build the shelter in a clearing, away from all
vegetation. Remove all topsoil in the area of the shelter to decontaminate the area. Keep
the shelter's entrance closed and oriented at a 90-degree angle to the prevailing wind. Do
not build a fire using contaminated wood--the smoke will be toxic. Use extreme caution
when entering your shelter so that you will not bring contamination inside.

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Water Procurement

As with biological and nuclear environments, getting water in a chemical environment is
difficult. Obviously, water in sealed containers is your best and safest source. You must
protect this water as much as possible. Be sure to decontaminate the containers before
opening.
If you cannot get water in sealed containers, try to get it from a closed source such as
underground water pipes. You may use rainwater or snow if there is no evidence of
contamination. Use water from slow-moving streams, if necessary, but always check first
for signs of contamination, and always filter the water as described under nuclear
conditions. Signs of water source contamination are foreign odors such as garlic, mustard,
geranium, or bitter almonds; oily spots on the surface of the water or nearby; and the
presence of dead fish or animals. If these signs are present, do not use the water. Always
boil or purify the water to prevent bacteriological infection.

Food Procurement

It is extremely difficult to eat while in a contaminated area. You will have to break the seal
on your protective mask to eat. If you eat, find an area in which you can safely unmask. The
safest source of food is your sealed combat rations. Food in sealed cans or bottles will also
be safe. Decontaminate all sealed food containers before opening, otherwise you will
contaminate the food.
If you must supplement your combat rations with local plants or animals,
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from contaminated areas or animals that appear to be sick. When handling plants or
animals, always use protective gloves and clothing.

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